AN INVESTIGATION AND EFFECTS OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AMONG CHILDREN
1.1 Background of the Study
Communicable diseases are as old as man and they constitute a great menace to human beings in every part of the world. They are one of the greatest problems facing children today. The diseases are silent killers unlike accident that kills instantly. Man has been trying to get rid of these diseases, for years but efforts made have proved partially abortive. Specifically, pre-school children (0-5 years old) are prone to communicable diseases because of their close interaction with one another, their non-discriminatory behaviours and also their low immunity power. A disease that is transmitted through direct contact with an infected individual or indirectly through a vector. Also called contagious disease.
Communicable disease is often called contagious or infectious disease. Anderson (2000) defined a communicable disease as a disease that can be transmitted from one person to another or from lower animal to higher animal (man). He attributed the cause of these diseases to pathogenic microorganisms. Brain (2007) also noted that communicable disease are infectious diseases that can be passed from person to another or from an animal to a person.
It is generally believed that nature harbours many microorganism which are very difficult to see with mere naked eyes except with the use of highly powerful microscopic lens. Those microorganisms which harm the human body are called pathogens. Udoh, Fawole, Ajala, Okafo & Nwana (2007) confirmed that pathogens that harm the body are popularly known as germs. These invade the tissues of the human host where they produce the condition called disease. These germs/pathogens (that is virus, bacteria, protozoan and metazoan) are mostly found in dirty places where the temperature and atmosphere support their existence.
Olaoye (2008) classified communicable diseases into four namely water borne disease, air borne diseases, insect borne and other diseases that are transmitted by contacts and arthropods. Brain (2007) stated that the best way of classifying communicable diseases is by their spread, and these are; air borne or droplet infections; faecal borne or gastro-intestina infections; transmission from animal, from insects and by contacts. Barbara and Bauirer (2007) identified three ways of transmitting communicable diseases as; transmission by contact, by vector and by air.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Home environment contribute to communicable diseases among school children. In the Africa culture the value of education is highly perfect, be it formal. If one take the formal education as a case study, the home or environment contribute a lot to the hygienic system of the child both of home and in school. As this could prevent some communicable disease that could have affected the pupils because the sound foundation for future prevention of communicable diseases start from home. lack of care at home, some time cause unhealthy rivalry among pupils as it has a negative effect on the health of the child both of home school and its environment.
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