DETERMINANTS OF UTILIZATION OF FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES AMONG WOMEN OF CHILD-BEARING AGE IN RURAL AREAS

DETERMINANTS OF UTILIZATION OF FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES AMONG
WOMEN OF CHILD-BEARING AGE IN RURAL AREAS

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1. Background Information
Family planning is one of the most ―health-promoting‖ and cost-effective activities in public
health promotion and has the potential to avert approximately 30% of maternal and 10% of child
deaths.1
Thus, FP contributes to achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) through
healthier birth spacing and by reducing mortality and morbidity associated with pregnancy.2
Decades of research and investment in family planning programmes have resulted in
dramatically improved programme coverage and biomedical technologies as well as significant
(although uneven) increases in contraceptive uptake throughout most of the developing world.3
Contraceptive options—not all of which are available in many developing countries—include a
variety of hormonal regimens and modes of delivery for women (e.g., pills, injectables, implants,
patches, vaginal rings, medicated intrauterine devices) as well as improved male and female
condoms, spermicides, cervical caps and other vaginal barriers, post-coital (emergency)
contraception, improved fertility awareness-based methods, and simpler and more effective
surgical techniques for tubal ligations and vasectomies.4
Nevertheless, Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) reveal that in many countries- including
some with quite high rates of contraceptive prevalence -40% or more of women who recently
gave birth reported that the pregnancy was wanted later or not at all.5
Proportions of married
women with an unmet need for contraception also range up to 30 to 40% or more in a number of
countries.
Contraceptive information, needs and motivations evolve through
the life course as male and female adolescents become sexually active before marriage or
cohabitation (perhaps with several partners) or at the time of their marriage, and as couples
decide if and when to begin childbearing (if they have not already accidentally done so);
accumulate experiences with contraception (or its absence) and with pregnancy and childbearing;
think about spacing and stopping; and are potentially faced with 10 or 20 more reproductive
years at risk. Some women and men will divorce, remarry and decide to have another child;
others will bear children (wanted or unwanted) outside of marriage or be motivated to avoid it.
The environmental and contextual scenarios are many; the individual trajectories even more
diverse. The challenge for educational and health sectors is to meet these changing needs with
comprehensive information about pregnancy risks, acceptable contraceptive options, and correct
and consistent use. Interventions include countering beliefs in ineffective methods and
overcoming unrealistic fears about contraceptive side-effects that adolescents may already have
acquired.

Statement
The number and timing of pregnancies in a woman’s reproductive lifespan affects the maternal
mortality risk; other factors include the presence of co morbidities, and obstetric care. The effect
of these factors is quantifiable by four measures: the number of maternal deaths, the maternal
mortality rate (MMRate), the maternal mortality ratio (MMRatio), and the lifetime risk of
maternal death.

How to get complete project materials


Step 1: make payment of N3000 to any of the bank below


NAME:                       TITUS AYANI SOLA
BANK:                       FIRST BANK PLC
ACCT NO:                  3111741042
ACCOUNT TYPE:       SAVINGS
AMOUNT:                  N3000

NAME:                       TITUS AYANI SOLA


BANK:                       WEMA BANK
ACCT NO:                  0237422220

STEP 2: AFTER PAYMENT SEND THE PROJECT TOPIC AND YOUR MODE OF DELIVERY (EMAIL ADDRESS OR WHATSAPP) TO 08063666753

Updated: 6th January 2023 — 1:50 pm