THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MOTIVATION ON THE JOB PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS
Background to the study
Teacher motivation plays an important role in the promotion of teaching and learning excellence. Generally, motivated teachers are more likely to motivate teachers to learn in the classroom, to ensure the implementation of educational reforms and feelings of satisfaction and fulfillment. Motivation also takes part in an important role for teachers because it helps to achieve the target efficiently. Teacher motivation is very important because it improves the skills and knowledge of teachers because it directly influences the student’s achievement (Ukpong&Uchendu, 2016). Ukpong and Uchendu (2016) were of the opinion that job motivation techniques for enhanced teachers’ job performance include working conditions, in-service training, regular payment of salary, provision of teaching facilities among others.
Job performance of public school teachers could be identified based on the achievement of teaching objectives. Wesly (2018) opined that an evaluation of teachers’ job performance could be carried out by considering their professional knowledge, teaching plan, teaching strategy, individual teaching and remedial, evaluation techniques, feedback, teaching-learning environment, challenging academic environment, professionalism and communication. The job performance is an effort of a teacher to achieve some specific goals. Wesly (2018) indicated that teachers’ job performance can be described as the duties performed by a teacher at a particular period in the school system in achieving organizational goals.
The fundamental role of teachers in the fulfilment of educational objectives underscores the need to motivate them to be satisfied with their jobs. This is because, in every education settings, the teachers are the seemingly life-wire of the organization. They are the ones that do not just use and control other resources, but determine the achievement of set aims and objectives. In this regard, Inayatullah and Jehangir (2015) posit that motivation plays an important role in the school hence it enhances job satisfaction as well as increases the productivity of teachers which invariably translate to goal achievement in an efficient way. More so, the performance of teachers can be improved through motivation in any school system. Corroborating this view, Okeke (2011) asserts that school goals are unattainable without the enduring commitment of the teachers.
Job satisfaction is the extent to which individual needs are satisfied in relation to the perception that such satisfaction is enabled by his/her total job situation (Ejiogu, 2012). Satisfaction also connotes happiness and a state of psychological feeling of contentedness as an outcome of need fulfilment. The secondary school teacher is a family man or woman with the responsibility of catering for family members/other dependants in terms of provision of food, shelter, clothing, school fees among others. It is important to stress that, whether or not they are able to do so shapes their perception and also affect their attitude towards the work place (Weirich&Knoontz, 2012, Ubom, 2014). This explains why Cameron (2014) stresses the need for employers of labour to provide the employees with the reasonable means to meet their socio-psychological needs, in order to avoid distraction. Job satisfaction is closely linked to motivation and is enhanced by job design, management style, involvement in decision making and empowerment (Russel, 2005).
Motivation is an inner state that energizes, activates or makes and channels behaviour towards goal attainment. It is a driving force that compels an individual to take some actions in order to achieve certain goals (Ali &Aroosiya, 2010). It is a general term applying to the entire class of drives, needs, wishes and similar forces. According to them, a manager motivates subordinates to do those things which the manager hopes will satisfy their drives and induce them to act in desired manner (Uche, Fiberesima& Christiana, 2011).According to Ogbonna (2014), motivation of teachers is necessary in order to enhance their job satisfaction as well as performance. Ogbonna further posits that teachers put in their best when they are given incentives and are getting satisfaction in their jobs and are made to feel that their interests are considered. According to Ogbonna, if teachers are to be retained so as to improve teachers’ performance, it is important that they are properly motivated from time to time so that they equally feel satisfied with their job.
Job satisfaction of teachers in recent times seems difficult without proper motivation. As speculated in the study area by relevant educational stakeholders such as school administrators, teachers, parents and teachers among others, involving teachers in decision making and provision of material/non material inducements are crucial Job satisfaction indices which can be used as a motivational tool by school administrators to achieve predetermined goals.
Provision of material/non material inducements is another motivational tool which seems to enhance teachers’ job satisfaction. Incentive package as a form of stimuli could be material in nature (Cameron, 2011). Over time, incentive measures like salaries, secondary benefits and tangible rewards (recognitions) and sanctions have been used to motivate employees for better performance. Adams (2011) is also of the view that non material inducement like decorating employees who accomplish special feat with gold, silver or bronze plate of distinction; nominating them for national awards/honorary titles or issuing them with certificate of merit will not only spur the recipients to greater performance, but also motivate others to strive for recognizable excellent performance. Other monetary benefits like housing/vehicle allowance, pension and other retirement benefits play a major role in total compensation, such that when they are absent, they contribute to a culture of absenteeism, alternative job seeking and ultimately low productivity (Sabry, 2010). Invariably, good incentive system encourages employee to be productive, creative, innovative and loyal (Adams, 2011).
Relatedly, Ambani (2011) observes that teachers may be induced and propelled to put in their best towards job performance, mostly in a situation where the management is responsible for medical bills of their staff and families or help in subsidizing the cost of their medical bills. According to Ambani, institutions can provide medical facilities by building hospitals, clinics and dispensaries for their staff and family members. Ambani posits further that if the general well-being of a teacher is improved, he or she is bound to put in his/her best in the discharging of duties. This is because he or she would derive satisfaction from being a teacher. In another perspective, Akpakwu (2010) stresses on the need for motivating teachers for outstanding performance through the provision of incentives like transport, good recreation centres like staff club, workers canteen, and medical service among others. Akpakwu further states that, if teachers are guaranteed with the above, there is the tendency that they will perform maximally towards the growth and development of the institution.
Akpan (2016) observed that condition of service such as pay rise is one of the powerful tools used in increasing motivation for teacher job performance. Fadeyi, Sofoluwe and Gbadeyan (2015) asserted that conditions of service are the strategies employed in motivating teachers for better job performance. These are in form of salary increment, gratuity, regular promotion, ensuring job security, and establishing cordial relationships among teachers. According to these authors, teachers are the initiators, facilitators of teaching and learning activities therefore their conditions of services must be conducive for them to feel satisfied while working. They act as agents of change in any school system because of these roles they perform; they can be regarded as the heart of quality improvement strategy. Ijaiya (2014) contended that teachers should be allowed to undergo training in the form of in-service training with pay since teachers’ training is one of the most effective motivational variables which are the gateway to teachers’ positive performance. This training may be carried out full-time or part-time. In support of the in-service training for teachers, Austin (2017) listed some positive changes that will occur. They are as follows: raises the morale of teachers towards their work, training and development can improve motivation, which makes a teacher become more skilled and shows seriousness in their work, training of teachers will expose the teacher to a new and modern technique in teaching especially in this era of information communication technology.
According to Udofia and Ikpe (2016), in-service training programme is a process for continuous updating of teachers’ knowledge, skills and interests in their chosen field. It is a means for continuous professional growth, which encourages the extension of technical assistance by teacher educators. It is an integral part of teacher job performance, which is organized for teachers while in service. Udofia and Ikpe outlined the benefits of in-service training of teachers to include: enable teachers to obtain higher academic and professional qualifications to improve their positions in the school system, help teacher acquire more conceptual and technical knowledge, skills and competencies in their teaching subjects and pedagogy to improve their efficiency in classroom instruction and enable the teachers to be adequately equipped to meet up with the new changes in the school system in the 21st century.
Statement of the problem
School has an important role in creating knowledgeable, skillful teachers who have religious and social values. Therefore, school is a social agent that should be paid attention in teaching process implementation and the teacher’s role cannot be ignored. Teacher is the one who determines the implementation of the teaching and learning process in the classroom. Teacher’s seriousness in teaching depends on teacher’s work motivation and professional competencies.Teachers will give their very best when they have a feeling or trust that their efforts will be rewarded by the management.Motivation is very important because it explains why the employees do their work. The essential stimulus of work motivation is needs. Needs are the driving factors in developing work motivation while working in an organization.
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