DIETARY EFFECT OF AFRICAN WALNUT (Tetracarpidiumconophorum) ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCEAND HISTOLOGY (HEART)OF AFRICAN CATFISH (Clariasgariepinus)
Aquaculture production has increased tremendously in Nigeria and Clariasgariepinus is an economically important cultured fish species. Aquaculture involves the domestication and rearing of different types of aquatic animals or plants in ponds or tanks. Aquaculture has continued to increase in values and volume in many countries of the world bridging the gap between demand and supply of fish, increase production, creating new and additional employment and contributing to household economy particularly in rural areas and fishery products (Ayoola, 2010). Nutrition is a major factor that determines the physiological well being of an animal. Use of natural feed additives is becoming more important for fish feeding rather than chemical feed additives due to the cumulative effects of the chemical components on animal and human health.
The African catfish Clariasgariepinus is one of the most economically important fish species in Nigeria, it is cultured for its hardy nature, fast growth, high economic value, and good taste (Asrafet al., 2013; Muchlisinet al. 2015; Marimuthuet al., 2019). Unfortunately, in Africa, high mortality often acts as a limiting factor to the growth of fish farming businesses; this is as a result of nutritional imbalance, wounds, and infections sustained by the fish. The use of food additives to boost the immune system of fish have been employed to circumvent this challenge. Although antibiotics have been used in fish production for over two decades, the transference of resistant genes to human microbiota is the main limiting factor. Research has revealed that plant sources of feeds contain appreciable crude protein content for maximum productivity (Aguilar-Manjarrezet al., 2017, Ayoola and Bamiro, 2017).
Walnuts has an insignificant amount of cholesterol-free sodium. Also, the presence of alate, phytates, and tannin in raw Tetracarpidiumconophorumnuts have been reported (Ayoola and Bamiro, 2017). Traditionally walnut is used as antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and liver health maintenance (Bello et al., 2012).
1.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT
It has been reported that the annual fish production in Nigeria is 0.6 million metric tons with a fish demand of 2.66 million metric tons (Adetunjiet al.,2009) This implies that fish produced in Nigeria does not meet the demand and that most of the fish consumed in Nigeria are imported. High cost of fish feed, which is also imported has been reported by many researchers to be a major limiting factor in the production of catfish in Nigeria (Ohen and Abang, 2009; Shitoteet al., 2011; Nwosu and Onyeneke, 2013), Researchers have attempted to study the type of feed mostly consumed by Clariasgariepinus.
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