INVESTIGATE THE IMPACT OF HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION IN PROMOTING YOUTH ENTREPRENEURIAL SKILLS ACQUISITION IN TERTIARY INSTITUTION
Background of the Study
Home economics is a vocational subject that passes knowledge and skills from the grass root home/family. Molokwu (2007) stresses that the knowledge and skills which Homes Economics provides can be taught in school, formally organized or even in a non-formal settings and skills, individuals involves in these skills acquisition can become self-reliant or employers of labour. sustainable human development can be achieved through home economics. Career opportunities available in home economics include teaching, textile design, fashion design, dietetic, nursery day-care management, interior design, clothing, food and beverage production and service.
Home economics education and entrepreneurship are two sides of the same coin. Home economics education is a key player in entrepreneurship development process and so has important role to play in reducing massive graduate unemployment and the social menace which it represents. The question before us is how to address the weakness in the system and reposition home economics education for producing creative entrepreneurs who can survive the competitive business in Nigeria as well as contribute to family and national building. Home economics education must evolve to be in tune with current global business changes and challenges.
Entrepreneurship in home economics has become a fundamental aspect in promoting economic success, steadiness and wealth. The significance of entrepreneurship has contributed immensely in reducing the extent of unemployment and thereby promoting employment opportunities among the youth especially university graduates. The development and economic stability of every nation has been shaped and carved by men and women who have taken their destinies in their own hands by perceiving opportunities and risking their resources (money, machines, materials, men) in establishing and operating their own business.
Home Economics professionals believed that societal problems such as substance abuse, domestic violence, unemployment, divorce, obesity, nutritional diseases and child abuse can be more effectively addressed from a perspective that considers the individual and family as part of larger systems. As a school subject in different contexts and in different grades, home economics may be oriented as an applied academic subject, as a product or technology-producing course, as career education, as independent-living skills, as health education, as parenting, or as family life education. As students stand at the threshold of adulthood, they need authentic knowledge that can help them understand the process of growing up with particular reference to their reproductive & nutritional health needs, so that they are well equipped to cope with the problems which they confront during the transitional phase.
Amodu (2011) stated that Home Economics provides the individuals with basic strategies to overcome poverty, to help secure foods & nutrition, health & hygiene, to handle household budget and available resources; to manage time, cope with market, train to be a better shopper, have good consumer behavior, to care for elderly, the sick and others, and to be able to combine professional and family responsibilities. The components of and the various factors that affect health and well-being and knowledge about various illnesses and diseases related to food and nutrition taught in Home Economics helps higher institution nutrition and food thereby promoting the family, society and Nations’ wellbeing. Emenike (2008) is of the opinion that the post-secondary school age which ranges between sixteen to twenty five years of age is not only the most impressionable but the most inquisitive and decision making period of one’s life time. They therefore need guidance and independent education as well as opportunities to explore life for themselves in order to attain a level of maturity required to make responsible decisions. This change can be initiated by promoting science as the basis for action, education as a platform to liberate them, and the home as a place to raise the standard of living and enact social change (Stage & Vincent. 2007). Thus, Home Economics education at this level becomes even more necessary and important to prevent inadequate or ill- informed idea/information on the depths and purposes of the family life.
This is collaborated by Adeboye and Olubela(2009) that entrepreneurship is a systematic process of identifying needs and satisfying those needs with creative thinking and values with the aim of acquiring wealth and promoting the sense of self-reliance, self-determination, independence and life or personal satisfaction. The survival of every society (developed or developing) is a dependent factor on the level of entrepreneurial abilities undertaken. Amadasun (2012) adduced that countries with less attention to entrepreneurship are likely to be surrounded with the daunting problem of unemployment, poverty, oppression and undue exploitation from the owners of the means of production. Adedira (2009) posited that unemployment problem which is on an alarming rate has become an atrocious phenomenon which has eaten deep into the fabrics of our economy. Researches indicated that people who are commonly affected by the syndrome are the economically active population such the youths particularly graduates from tertiary institutions, and also people who are retrenched as a result of economic recession, and sociocultural discrepancies. In Nigeria today, the geometric progression and trend of the unemployed has revealed that young graduates from tertiary institutions do not the necessary entrepreneurial abilities, competencies, exposures values that will help them to adapt and integrate to the world of business. Okwuanaso (2010) also argued that many graduates who tend to establish and be independent in their own little way often failed in the world of work and this can be associated to their little knowledge of what it takes to be an entrepreneur.
The word skill is one of the relative terms with various definitions; depending on what one feels it is. Okorie (2013) defined skill as expertness, practical ability, dexterity and tact; and organized sequence of actions, proficiency executed and usually displayed in flexible but systematic temporal pattern. He further viewed skill as manual dexterity through repetitive performance of an operation. Skill therefore, is a well-established habit of doing something. It involves the attainment of performance capability. To acquire or posses a skill is to demonstrate the habit of acting, thinking and behaving until a process becomes natural to the individual through reverberation or practice.
The acquired skills and competencies can manifest in the life of the students to assist them improve on higher standard of life in the community (Odu, 2010). Skill is the ability to do something expertly and well (Uloko, 2010). It is an organized sequence of actions, proficiently executed and usually displayed in flexible but systematic temporal patterning, (Okorie 2014). Skill can be looked at as the ability to acquire an expert knowledge in the formation of a process and it is usually expected that the acquisition takes the process of learning. Hull (2009), noted that Skill is a manual dexterity through repetitive performance of an operation. This implies mastery, but the acquisition of mastery or skill requires training to be competent towards the accomplishment of a task; requires focused consistency on the intended technique in achieving the skill or attaining mastery relevant to the given task.
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