FACTORS AFFECTING COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study
Development in any community is determined by the level of involvement of the
immediate citizenry who come together as a community to achieve common goals.
Community development involves bringing people together with the common goal of
improving their social, economic, political, educational and cultural wellbeing for a better
living livelihood. Thus, peoples’ participation is an indispensable element for effective
community development. People’s participation cannot be dispensed within development
efforts (Mohammad, 2010). Hence people’s participation in community development is
gaining momentum in the process of human empowerment and development. Participation,
as the term implies is considered as a central role in the execution of community development
programme.
Participation is a process of equitable and active involvement of all stakeholders in the
formulation of development policies and strategies and in the analysis, planning,
implementation, monitoring and evaluation of development activities. (Food Agricultural
Organization, FAO, 2007). Participation is a process through which stakeholders influence
and share control over development initiatives and take decisions in controlling resources
which affect them (World Bank, 2003). Therefore by making the people aware of the
programme, awareness is created. Awareness is a process of informing people about a
particular project that is taking place in a community. Also awareness is enlightening people
about what is happening in the community on development, work, or a process of informing
people about recent happenings in the community. This information passes through the use of
mass media, as a center to share and control initiatives. Active participation also places
people at the center to the attainment and sharing of control over development initiatives as
well as in making decision as regards to the resources which affect them (Allen, 2000).

Participation includes people involvement in decision making processes, in implementing
programmes; sharing the benefits of the programme and their involvement in efforts to asses
and evaluate such programmes. Participation involves the use of a service, contribution of
money, material and labor through attendance or consultation on a particular issue,
implementing of delegated power in real decision making at every stage, identification of
problems, implementation and evolution committee members.
Community participation as Pan (2011) reported is an active process by which the
beneficiary or client groups influence the direction and execution of a development project
with a view to enhancing their wellbeing in terms of income, personal growth, self-reliance or
other values they cherish. Nzeh (2012) stated that participation is a process of empowerment
of the deprived and the excluded. This view is based on the recognition of differences in
political and economic power among different social groups and classes. Participation in this

sense necessitates the creation of organization which is democratically independent and self-
reliant (Ajaji and Otuya, 2006). In other words, participation is a process where local people

provide input and cooperate or collaborate with planners and developers to ensure acceptable
and successful outcome and or where by initiative can be implemented more effectively.
Participation can also be regarded as a goal in itself. Effective participation process help
people acquire knowledge, skills and experiences which are important for change. Therefore,
community participation is a way through which the efforts of people of different class and
background are linked with those of government authorities to improve the social, economic
and cultural conditions of the communities in a particular location to integrate these
communities into the life of the nation and to enable them to contribute fully to national
progress. Community development is fundamentally concerned with decision-making
processes affecting users, community-based agencies and services. It is premised on a
‘bottom-up’ approach, which means enhancing the capacity of communities to determine
goals and to pursue issues of importance to them, and to make decisions affecting,

Community embrace members of particular community of interest and place, as well as those
statutory, voluntary or private community-based agencies and entities with a concern to
improve quality of life and to address disadvantage in those areas. Bomber, Owens, Schofeld,
and Ghats (2010) reported that in order to achieve development in the community,
community members need to be involved directly in the process of development.
Participation entails involving in decision making, to choose a community project, plan,
implement, manage, monitor and control.
Community development can be described as a process by which the efforts of the
people themselves are united with those of government authorities to improve the economic,
social and cultural conditions of communities that would lead to the integration of those
communities into life of a nation and enable them to contribute fully to nation’s progress
(United Nations, 2013). Community development is an approach that can lead to the
attainment of a desired change through mobilization of people which entails self-help and
participation of people in their own initiatives (Anyauwu, 2004). Furthermore, community
development is a method used to secure active participation and cooperation of people in
order to raise their standard of living. To that effect, community participation in community
development encompasses helping community members understand each other’s issues,
needs and potential contributions on working and learning together to find creative ways of
resolving conflict and achieving mutually beneficial solutions. Bomber et al. (2009)
confirmed that the most effective community development programmes around the world are
carried out through the involvement of multiple partners in delivering the programme
activities at the neighborhood level.
Community development, as a programme, lays emphasis on specific activities, such
as health care system, agricultural system, industry, and recreation. Community development
is a programme which is intended to highlight the activities undertaken in the process of
development. Ife (2002) maintains that it is a programme that community development

comes in to contact with subject matter specialties such as health care experts, welfare
workers, agricultural system, industry and recreation. This means that people should be
encouraged to understand the issues that are important to their neighborhoods and act in
unison to keep the community strong and healthy. It is also apparent that members of an
active participatory community provide inputs on educational and infrastructural
development of their immediate environment. Therefore, community participation is deeply
inherent in the concept of community development which enjoins that whatever is done to
improve the welfare of the people must endeavor to elicit the enthusiasm and whole hearted
participation of such people Nnoll, Ajaji and Smith, (2011) notes that public involvement
results in better decisions. Whole community decision that involves citizen is more likely to
be accepted to the local people. This idea portrays community development in its true light as
a cooperative of partnership in progress.
Certainly, many communities in Nigeria find it difficult to enjoy basic welfare
facilities. Local and organized efforts have become necessary, for the communities in order
to enhance the realization of community development goals, especially where government
patronage was not easy to get all the time whereas organized development efforts through
community development programme have become popular today. Dan (2011) stated that
situation where community bodies are mere small organization operating within a larger
social environment that is plagued with poverty, low standard of living and economic
vagaries. Hence they may lack the basic economic resources to initiate or sustain project.
There is limit to which the communities can effectively participate under such poor economic
condition.
Here, in the area under study, there are some factors among which are socio-cultural
factor, economic factor, political factor and lack of enlightenment which hinders the smooth
implementation of community development programme. Scharefer (2002) stated that culture
as a concept has different contextual meaning from different educators. In sociological and

anthropological perspective, culture refers to the society and all that make it to exist. The
author further defines culture as the totality of socially transmitted behaviors. Akubue (2008)
defined culture as the sum total of the way in which human being lives are transmitted from
generation to generation by learning. Okolo, (2001) says that culture as an aspect of human
behavior that are transmitted to members of a society, which include knowledge, belief, art
and habits acquired by man as a full –fledged member of society
Community efforts have been carried out to tackle local problems in different
localities with external support or intervention. This has been a common practice long before
the colonial rule. Abegunde (2009) stressed that during the colonial period and after
independence, government at different levels supported communities to develop their locality
in different ways, and for many years emphasis was on cooperation and self-help among the
people. Zaden, (2010) stated that Community development programme is influenced by the
ability of major stakeholders to mobilize people for participation. Generally, people who are
informed about a community issue and are interested in resolving it, feel that they can be
more effective in working with groups.
Therefore, the researcher developed interest to determine the factors affecting
community participation in community development programme in the study area. So
members participation is deeply embedded in the art of taking part or getting involved in
some activities where impact on the contribution of resources in the delivery of services
within the community setting. Participant refers to where citizens and other groups interested
or affected. No community, group or even families are truly homogeneous, real differences
exist in terms of gender, economic status, ethnicity, languages;( Hausa, Fulani, Waja,
Tangale, Bolewa and Pow) on structure, age, religious believes, participatory supports tend to
ignore these differences and complexities of communities that remains homogenous. The
underlying problems in the communities are not properly examined and analyzed. This

promoted the search for factors affecting community participation in Community
Development programs in Gombe State.
Statement of the problem
In Nigerian society today, most people don’t want to participate in community
development programme due to some negative factors such as cultural, socio- economic,
awareness, planning, and religions among others. But empowering people to become aware
of the importance of community participation will help to eliminate the inhibiting factors.
Government is expected to provide basic need such as good drinking water, good road, health
care delivery system, better agricultural and literacy education including effective security of
lives and property. This has not been obtainable. Therefore people must come together as a
social unit to develop their community by removing or doing away with their differences that
serve as great factors that affect community participation in community development.

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Updated: 16th November 2020 — 5:34 pm

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