EFFECT OF BRAINSTORMING INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES ON SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
Education remains an instrument of change and national development worldwide and
so Nigerian National Policy on Education (FME, 2004) declares that education is an
“instrument per excellence” for realization of the goals. Science is also identified as a
necessary factor for economic development of every nation (Ojebisi, 2010). In realization of
this, National Policy on Education has provisions for quality science education for the
citizenry. Good science education is a necessary factor in the effort to ensure quality science,
therefore, Nigeria has been exerting tremendous and well-documented efforts to address
problems confronting science education through reviews and reforms as necessary.
Basic Science, the form in which science is currently being taught at the
JuniorSecondary School level in Nigeria evolved from Integrated Science through curriculum
reform. The reforming of educational programme for human development and social
responsibility in Nigeria is not just to access to a large number of Nigerians but also about
developing critical competencies and knowledge for sustained growth (Obioma, 2005).
Thereview of Integrated Science was necessary for effective improvement to achieve certain
national objectives of education (Anekwe and Obi, 2009). Thus the evolved curriculum,
Basic Science, would be expected among other things, to produce scientifically literate
citizens (Offorma, 2005); improve nation‟s capacity to make use of new technologies
(Maharjan and White,2000; Olatoye and Afuwape,2004); produce higher percentage pass of
students in the subject at the end of Junior Secondary School programme (Keevesand
Morgarstain,1992; Olatoye and Afuwape,2004), as well as improve enrolment in science
related courses at the tertiary level. All these and more are to be accomplished if the gaps in
the former Integrated Science are to be filled.
Basic Science is basic training in scientific skills required for human survival,
sustainable development and societal transformation as explained by Nigerian Educational
Research Development Council (NERDC, 2007). According to Obioma (2007) and Sodipo
(2009), the new curriculum is to prepare the products to become effective citizens who will
be self –reliant, confident, competent and globally competitive. The educational goal of Basic
Science as set out by NERDC is not only to create future scientists but more importantly to
produce Nigerian citizens equipped with understanding of science so that they are able to
participate intelligently in critical thinking activities, problem solving and decision making
process. In other words, students should be able to apply the content knowledge acquired to
real world problems and to give evidence of more than superficial understanding of concepts
and relationship that are fundamental to Basic Science. In fact, Omoifo (2012) explains the
importance of effective teaching and emphasizes that effective teaching only occurs when
students learn and achieve many scientific goals and not just being able to repeat scientific
knowledge.
In order to achieve the laudable goals of the new Basic Science curriculum, some
identified factors that militated against former Integrated Science should be removed. Some
of the identified factors include, poor attitude of students to science (Iroegbu, 2000), students‟
lack of interest in science (Adepitan, 2003) and poor Mathematics background of students
(Ogunleye,2009). Teachers have been identified as a major factor in curriculum
implementation. Ajibola (2008) noted that lack of initiative, innovation, constructive mind
and creative ideas of teachers are affecting proper implementation of Basic Science
curriculum. The teaching method or instructional strategy adopted by the teacher affects
students‟ achievement and attitude to science (Gbolagade,2009)

Statement of the Problem
Basic science as the basic training in scientific skills required for human survival,
sustainable development and societal transformation is yet to achieve its role to prepare
students to become effective citizens who are self-reliant, confident and globally competitive.
This trend has been attributed to usage of ineffective instructional strategies by teachers.
Therefore, scholars have suggested adoption of instructional strategies that are capable of
making students interact with one another and link their past experiences to generate new
ideas.
It is a known fact that most teachers in Nigerian classrooms adopt methods of
instruction which would not encourage students to play active role in the teaching-learning
process

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Updated: 16th November 2020 — 7:03 pm

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