What will happen to the Sun in the future?

A series of improbable coincidences led to the fact that somewhere in the infinite cosmic ocean, in an unremarkable galaxy near the most ordinary star, life was born. This is a bit strange, but it was the energy of the Sun that allowed me to write this article and you to read it. The sun is a symbol of life itself. No wonder our ancestors worshipped it, giving it divine power. But if life on Earth ever disappears, what will happen to the Sun? Modern science and technology have allowed us not only to look into the past of the Universe, but also to predict future events. In this article, you will learn whether the Sun will absorb Venus, mercury, and Earth.

bserving the Sun requires special precautions because it is so bright. It’s never safe to look at it through a telescope unless your telescope has a special solar filter.

One fascinating way to observe the Sun is during a total solar eclipse. This special event is when the Moon and Sun line up as seen from our point of view on Earth. The Moon blocks the Sun out for a short time and it’s safe to look at it. What most people see is the pearly white solar corona stretching out into space.

Life and death of the Sun
Let’s start with the fact that the Sun is an ordinary star. It illuminates the Solar system with light and heat, establishing daily sleep and Wake cycles for all living organisms on our planet. But the Sun won’t always be like this. There will come a time when our home star will die, and the entire Solar system will turn into a very unpleasant place. It is important to understand that all physical processes occurring on the Sun largely determine the physics of the planets (at least those closest to the star).

The average distance from the Earth to the Sun is 150 million kilometers. The light covers this distance in 8 minutes. For comparison, the next closest star to us, Proxima Centauri, is 4 light-years away.

Astronomers classify the Sun as a young star with a high metal content. This means that the Sun was formed from the remains of older stars. The current age of our sun is estimated by researchers at about 4.6 billion years, which means that the star has lived about half of its life, since its maturation – the main sequence phase – lasts 10 billion years. After the end of this period, the next stage of its evolution will occur. As the Sun consumes its reserves of hydrogen fuel, it becomes hotter and its luminosity increases. By the time the Sun marks its 5.6 billion birthday, it will be 11 times brighter than it is today.

Researchers believe that by this time on our planet, either there will be a drastic change in life, or it will disappear altogether. In General, some scientists believe that human civilization will die long before the Sun turns into a red giant. I told you more about this in a previous article.

Red giant
Red giants are stars, in nuclei in which the combustion of hydrogen ceased. For this reason, the core is no longer released energy and it begins to quickly shrink and heat up under the influence of gravity. As the core temperature rises during compression, it ignites the hydrogen in the thin layer surrounding the core.

The transformation of a yellow dwarf into a red giant is one of the most unusual transformations known to modern science: the Sun’s helium core, the size of a giant planet, is compressed and heated. In response, the Sun will become 100 times wider. The expanding sun will engulf mercury and Venus, and possibly the Earth. Astronomers observing from another Solar system would classify this bloated version of our Sun as a red giant.

Read more interesting articles about our galaxy, Solar system, and Universe on our Yandex.Zen channel. There are regularly published articles that are not on the site.

It should be noted that with the transformation of the Sun into a red giant, new types of thermonuclear reactions will inevitably occur, as a result of which the core of the star will shrink and heat up even more. When the core temperature reaches 100 million degrees Celsius, the helium will ignite and begin to melt into carbon and oxygen. This will cause the Sun to shrink somewhat, but after a while – and over the next 100 million years-it will begin to expand again. In the last phase of life, there will be a cyclical, soft release of gas-astronomers call it a planetary nebula.

Three and a half billion years later, The sun’s brightness will increase by 40%. By this time, researchers believe, our planet will turn into something resembling modern Venus: water from The earth’s surface will completely disappear, which will lead to the final death of all terrestrial organisms (provided that they were able to adapt to the changed conditions billions of years ago). After another 6.4 billion years, the Sun will begin to expand relatively quickly, maintaining a constant luminosity. As a result, in 7 billion years from now, our home star will turn into a subgiant-a star whose core has run out of all hydrogen fuel.

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