THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF CORONAVIRUS ON EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the study

In December, 2019, a cluster of pneumonia cases, who were later proven to be caused by a novel coronavirus (named as “2019-nCoV”), emerged in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. By January 30, 2020, 9692 confirmed cases and 15,238 suspected cases have been reported around 31 prov- inces and cities in China. Among the confirmed cases, 1527 were severe cases, 171 had recovered and been discharged at home, and 213 died. Twenty-eight confirmed cases aged from 1 month to 17 years had been reported in China.

Coronavirus (CoV) belongs to the Coronaviridae family, Nidovirales order. CoVs are divided into four genera: α-, β-, γ-, and δ-coronavirus. α- and β-coronaviruses only infect mammals, whereas γ- and δ-coronaviruses mainly infect birds, with a few infecting mammals. Human CoVs include α-coronaviruses (229E and NL63), β-coronaviruses (OC43 and HKU1), the Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV), severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and 2019-nCoV. The 2019-nCoV belongs to the β-coronavirus genus, which includes bat-SARS-like (SL)-CoVZC45, bat- SL-CoVZXC21, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and 2019-nCoV.

Current studies have revealed that 2019-nCoV may originate from wild animals, but the exact origin remains unclear.

2019-nCoV infected patients are the main infection sources. However, we also should attach importance to asymptomatic cases which may play a critical role in the transmission process. Respiratory droplets and contact are the main transmission routes. Close contact with symptomatic cases and asymptomatic cases with silent infection are the main transmission routes of 2019-nCoV infection in children. People of all ages are susceptible to 2019-nCoV. The elderly and those with underlying chronic diseases are more likely to become severe cases. Thus far, all pediatric cases with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection were mild cases, and no deaths had been reported.

Coronaviruses are a family of viruses that range from the common cold to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). The most recent coronavirus (sometimes referred to as the novel coronavirus) is called COVID-19, and was first detected in Wuhan, China in December of 2019

For standardizing the prevention and treament of 2019- nCoV infections in children, we called up an experts’ com- mittee to formulate this consensus statement. This statement is based on the Novel Coronavirus Infection Pneumonia Diagnosis and Treatment Standards (the fourth edition) (National Health Committee) and other previous diagnosis and treatment strategies for pediatric virus infections.

Based on the current epidemiological data, the incubation period of 2019-nCoV infections ranges from 1 to 14 days, mostly ranging from 3 to 7 days. Current reported data of pediatric cases revealed that the age of disease onset ranged from 1.5 months to 17 years, most of whom had a close contact with infected cases or were family cluster cases. Infected children might appear asymptomatic or present with fever, dry cough, and fatigue, and few have upper respiratory symptoms including nasal congestion and running nose; some patients presented with gastrointestinal symptoms including abdominal discomfort, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea.

Most infected children have mild clinical manifestations. They have no fever or symptoms of pneumonia with a good prognosis. Most of them recover within 1–2 weeks after disease onset. Few may progress to lower respiratory infections. No newborns delivered by 2019-nCoV infected mothers have been detected positive; and no newborn cases have been reported yet. It should be noted that clinical manifestations in pediatric patients should be further defined after collecting more pediat- ric case data. Furthermore, the number of confirmed infected cases will increase after a wide use of pathogen analysis.

Data from adults reveal that severe cases often develop dyspnea one week after disease onset. Severe cases may rap- idly progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), septic shock, refractory metabolic acidosis, and coagulation dysfunction. Although no deaths in children have been reported up to now, the potential risk of death should be highlighted. Though clinical symptoms in pediatric patients are relatively milder compared with those in adult patients, ARDS and death cases also occurred in infected children during the SARS and MERS epidemics. Differential diagnosis should be made to distinguish from influenza virus, para-influenza virus, adenovirus, respira- tory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus, SARS coronavirus, and other known viral infections, as well as mycoplasma pneumoniae and chlamydia pneumo- nia and bacterial pneumonia. The coinfection of 2019-nCoV with other viruses and/or bacteria should be considered in diagnosis.

There are school closures of some kind in 22 countries on three continents with hundreds of millions of students around the world facing upheaval, including 13 countries that have shut schools nationwide.

The United Nations has warned of the unparalleled scale and speed of the educational disruption being caused by coronavirus

statement of the problem

Coronavirus disease spreads primarily through contact with an infected person when they cough or sneeze. It also spreads when a person touches a surface or object that has the virus on it, then touches their eyes, nose, or mouth.

Rural dwellers in West Africa are at risk of coronavirus because of proximity to animal reservoir, open construction of African villages, the practice of drying grains by road sides or outside homes and unprotected grain storage within homes. All these factors are known to facilitate increased rodent-man contact or contamination of food sources by infected rodent secretions.

As part of the effort to contain the spread of the coronavirus, public spaces such as schools, universities, and offices are closing down so that people can stay at home and prevent further spread.

In countries, such as China, where testing and quarantine measures were taken, the spread was able to level out. Measures that are taken to slow the rate of infection include social distancing, limits on event sizes, and home quarantine when necessary.

Closing schools and offices ensures that people can limit their interactions with others and slows the spread of the virus while the healthcare system copes with the pandemic

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Updated: 6th April 2020 — 2:03 pm