1.1 Background of the Study

A child in every home is seen as a gift from God and also a source of blessing, joy, happiness and hope for his parents. Hornby (1999) in Onuigbo (2009) describes the child as a human being who is not yet an adult. A child could be a boy or a girl from the time of birth until they are aged 18years. United Nation Children‘s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) (2001) stated that children are internationally accepted as human beings below the ages of eighteen years. They are special members of each nation and link between the present and future generations. All children are born to grow and develop, to articulate their feelings and needs, but growing up and developing smoothly is often difficult for most children. Some children receive and enjoyed the love, affection and care from their parents or care givers to develop into healthy, happy adolescents, while others are hurt or abused by their parents, adults or care givers. Sebre (2004) viewed child abuse as ―any failure of a parent or care giver to provide needed food, clothing, shelter, medical care, safety and well-being for their children is child abuse. Sebre further stated that it is a situation in which a child lacks attention from people surrounding him and the non-provision of relevant and adequate necessities for the child‘s survival which would be a lacking in attention, love and nurture. African Network for Prevention and Protection Against Child Abuse and Neglect (ANPPCAN) (2000), looked at child abuse from a broad view that any situation where adults maltreat children by under mining their rights making them to do hard work that is too much for their age, giving them excessive punishments and not giving them enough balanced diet is child abuse. 1 Gerbner (2004) defined child abuse as ―non-accidental physical injury or injuries that result from the acts or omission on the part of parents or guardians that violate the community standard concerning the treatment of the child. Based on the researcher view, it can be said that child abuse is when children are over worked and maltreated by adults and at the same time, giving them excessive punishment not considering their age and the nature of offence. Ross (1996) observe that some of the observable signs in an abused child include: the child is frequently absent from school, begs or steals food or money, lacks needed medical treatment, lacks adequate nutrition, is consistently dirty and lacks sufficient clothing for the weather. Most cultures in the world may view child abuse, emotionally and physically, as socially acceptable, which is due to different child rearing practice and belief among different culture. Each culture has their own ―range of acceptability‖ and what one may view as offensive; others may seem as tolerable behaviours that are normal, all depending on the societal norms of that particular country. Akanle, (2007).

EFFECTS OF LOW FAMILY INCOME https://jollertexcomputer.com.ng/index.php/2019/07/13/investigation-on-the-attitude-of-parents-toward-physically-challenge-children-education/ON PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR

Statement of the Problem

In Nigeria, children of school-age are seen begging, hawking and roaming about on the street. The situation of most Nigerian children remains critical due to the unique factors of their low socio-economic status, cultural, and traditional circumstances. Children are compelled by circumstances beyond their control to contribute to family income. In the long run, working children are abused in several ways due to their involvement in all sort of hazardous work which affects their health and developmental process. Child abuse impacts are not only the abused child and other siblings at home, but also have major social and economic implication on the society at large. Children are being unfairly treated and subjected to different forms of exploitative abuse such as physical punishment, hawking, begging, and ill-treatment by their parents; which make them to be aggressive, and delinquencies and some time may constitute threat to different bullying. Gelles (2001) posited that child abuse are integral part of modern world including African 4 society, corporal punishment was widely given in the African society for disobedient children, these include caning, beating and in some communities, painful punishment such as rubbing pepper into genital region are practiced

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Updated: 22nd December 2019 — 6:36 am