1.1 Background to the Study
The issue of academic performance among secondary school students has been a matter of great concern to educators, parents and government. Even though measures have been taken to improve the situation, a large proportion of secondary school students perform poorly. Secondary school students in recent times tend to perform below expectation in most of the internal and external examinations; this may be attributed to the influence of so many factors. For most among them is the influences of depression and host of others. Everyone has most likely experienced a sad mood at one time or another in his or her life. A short period of sadness is not uncommon as humans struggle with the pressures of everyday life, such as financial, marital, and job difficulties. Raising children and taking care of aging parents add to the increase in people‘s sometimes sad moods. However, it is depression that is of significant concern in the society, today. Many adults experience depression which can result in significant health consequences and even death from suicide. Furthermore, depression is one of the most common disorders that occur among secondary school adolescents. Depression affects 5 to 8 percent of adolescents (Son, 2000). Depression can have devastating effects on secondary school adolescents. Research indicates that depressed secondary school students are at risk for increased illness, low academic performance, difficult family and peer relations, substance abuse, and delinquent behavior (Allen-Meares, Cola Rossi, Oysterman, & DeRoos, 2003). Depression is often associated with suicide among youths and suicide is the third leading 2 cause of death for youth ages 15-24 in almost all parts of the world but most especially in America (McCarthy, Downes, & Sherman, 2008). The dangers associated with depression are evidence that recognizing, understanding, and treating depression are extremely important. However, while adolescent depression is common it is difficult to recognize. It is imperative that society, especially parents, educators, and mental health professionals understand what depression is (most especially among secondary school students), recognize its symptoms and its causes, as well as recognize the effects depression has on secondary school students. Depression is an emotional state that involves feelings of great sadness, worthlessness, and guilt. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders (4th ed., text revised) (DSM-IV TR) requires that five out of nine symptoms must be present for at least two weeks for a diagnosis of depression to be given. These nine symptoms include a sad, depressed mood most of the day, for most days, loss of interest and pleasure in regular activities, difficulties sleeping, lethargy or agitation, loss or increase in weight and appetite, loss of energy, negative self-concept and feelings of worthless and guilt, difficulty concentrating, and recurrent thoughts of death or suicide. The symptoms of either depressed mood or loss of interest and pleasure must be one of the five symptoms for a depression diagnosis to be made. Other symptoms include low self-esteem, and somatic complaints. Depression is a recurrent disorder and has increased steadily over the last fifty years, especially among adolescents worldwide (Davison & Neale, 2001). Secondary school students may experience more symptoms of somatic complaints, social withdrawal, and irritability rather than a sad mood. Symptoms of 3 depression can also be different for secondary school students of different ages. Younger secondary school students may have symptoms of anxiety manifested in clinging behaviors, fearfulness, and physical complaints. Furthermore, research indicates that 89% of depressed adolescents usually show signs of sleep difficulty while 79.5% show appetite and weight disturbances (McCarthy, Downes, & Sherman, 2008).
CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF Dhttps://jollertexcomputer.com.ng/index.php/2019/11/21/all-classes-of-project-materials-at-cheaper-price-4/EPRESSION ON SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE
Statement of the Problem
Depression and other affective disorders continue to be an area primarily ignored by the public schools. Countless number of secondary school students may be affected by depression which may also affect academic performance. Depressed students often result in having other behavioral problems like skipping school which may result in poor academic performance. Also secondary school students that are depressed are usually 6 hopeless, have concentration ability difficulty and pay less attention in class and their studies in general and thus may low performance. Depression has a great effect on students‘ age and to a large extent students‘ academic performance, is a well-known fact that there is a certain period in student development that they tend to learn faster and whatever they learnt are permanently stamped in their memories. Similarly, there are certain periods in one‘s life that the rate of learning tends to decline that is to say the rate of assimilation is slow, and as such students who are young and depressed may tend to have low academic performance and those who are older may even have a worst case scenario.
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