1.1 Background to the Study

Classroom is the immediate management environment for formal knowledge acquisition. It is a shelter for both teachers and learners so as to engage in educative activities. Classroom is made up of the teacher, the learners, learning equipment and the environment. Kimberly (2001) stated the five characteristics of a classroom as security, open communication, mutual likeness, shared goals and connectedness. Management on the other hand, can be seen as the process of designing and maintaining any setting in which people work in groups for the purpose of accomplishing predetermined goals. The idea of any setting equally indicates that management is applicable to all establishments which do not exonerate educational setting. Management involves the act of running or controlling or skill of dealing with people or situations in any way (Adeyemo, 2012). Also, management is defined as a method where a group of people at the highest level of organization plan, organize, communicate, coordinate, control and direct the actions and activities of people who work for the organization toward the achievement of organizational objectives (Loomiz, 1989 in Adeyemo, 2012). Some people believe that education and management are incompatible; management is seen as process that happens in industry but not in education. The management role of a teacher therefore is not the same as that of an accountant or of a bank manager, but the management role is certainly an institution that has specific objectives and a school is not an exception. In order to achieve its aims, a school has to have objectives, and to achieve these objectives, the various people with responsibilities in the school especially in a classroom have to plan, organize and lead. 2 Classroom management is the term used by teachers to describe the process of ensuring that classroom lessons run smoothly despite disruptive behaviour by students. The term also implies the prevention of disruptive behaviour. It is possibly the most difficult aspect of teaching for many teachers; indeed experienced problems in this area cause some to leave teaching. Classroom management is a complex set of articulate behaviour which the teacher uses to establish and maintain conditions to enable learners achieve instructional objectives efficiently. Brown (1995) looked at classroom management as a process involving the organization of certain academic tasks which are essential for effective teaching and learning in a specific set up. Classroom management first became a popular topic in education during the 1970 and 1980 (Tavares, 1996 & Butchart, 1995). The focus in these early years was primarily on making the classroom safe and establishing behaviour management, used to control and shape students behaviour to conform to school rules by the classroom teacher. Classroom management using an authoritarian or punitive approach could repress disorderly behaviour, but it might not foster student‘s growth or allow the acquisition of more sophisticated modes of learning, such as critical thinking and reflection (Jones, 1995). In the 1990s classroom management developed beyond a set of educational techniques to become a complex process in which an environment is constructed in an ongoing reciprocal manner. This process included dialogue between teachers and students, reflection on past and present experiences, and looking at how one‘s behaviour affected others in the environment (Schneider, 1996). Research from Balmer, Brophy and Good in Adeyemo (2012) shows that the time teacher has to correct misbehaviour caused by poor classroom management skills result in a lower rate of academic engagement in the classroom. From the students‘ perspective, effective classroom management involves clear communication of behaviour and academic expectations as well as a cooperative learning 3 environment. Apparently, classroom management is closely linked to issues of motivation, reinforcement, reward, discipline and respect (Naong, 2007). There are instances of some situations in the classroom that has necessitated the application of adequate management techniques by the teacher, these among others include: Students undermining the teacher‘s authority; students leaving class too frequently, sometimes without permission; sitting and backing the teacher during lesson; reading other materials or doing other things like discussion or noise making during lesson; eating or chewing gum while the class is going on; and students sleeping in the class during the lesson. All these should be considered rude and should not be tolerated. Other issues faced in the classes are: refusal to participate or speak during lesson, students sometimes become naughty and refuse to participate in classroom activities, fighting in the class, telling lies, stealing, copying other students‘ work during test or examinations, lack of toilet training, for instance and the likes. All these types of behaviour are management problems which need adequate classroom management techniques to tackle them. In countries like the U.S. and Malaysia, there are media publications, where teachers have been charged with assault on learners; teachers have used sticks to hit the children (Naong, 2007)


Statement of the Problem

The purpose of good classroom management in the realization of the objectives of education cannot be over emphasized. As student often exhibits some deviant behaviour in the classroom, which include; noise making, chewing gum, passing notes, using cell phones in class, cheating during examinations or test, copying or passing a different note during lesson, jesting, sleeping during lessons, stealing, eating during lessons, fighting, rudeness to teachers, breaking school rules, distracting others and the likes. All these and even more could constitute management problems that require effective management techniques to handle them so as to achieve educational objectives (Osakwe, 2014).

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Updated: 22nd December 2019 — 6:46 am

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