IMPACT OF INFRASTRUCTURAL FACILITIES ON SOCIAL STUDIES STUDENTS PERFORMANCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

Education is a very important instrument of national development for any society. Education is a vehicle for economic, social, cultural and political development of individuals and nations, Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN, 2004). Education is a major vehicle for individual empowerment and National development. A National educational system is vital because it produces the personnel that are required to function in various facets of national life and development process. Gray (2001) cited in Uhaa (2016) notes that the goals of wealth creation, employment, generation, poverty reduction and value reorientation can be effectively pursued, attained and sustained only through an efficient, relevant and functional education system. Quality education at all levels, primary, secondary and tertiary, is desired of all Nigerians. At the secondary levels, quality education is absolutely necessary because it serves as the foundation for tertiary level and for people to provide self employment if they cannot continue with the tertiary level. Federal Government Colleges are colleges established primarily to foster unity and integration in Nigeria, they were established on federal character principles, as a tool for national integration, found in all the state of the federation, where students study and live during the school year with fellow students, teachers and administrators, some of the schools have both day and boarding studnets who attend the institution by day and return off-campus to their families in the evening. 2 Infrastructural facilities such as; classrooms environment, hostel, libraries and laboratory, electricity/water, common room/dinning hall form the bulk of things that facilitates the achievement of goals/objectives of impacting knowledge in the life of students. Infrastructural facilities form the backbone of any educational instruction. Lack of these infrastructural facilities in school such as unhealthy surroundings, inadequate office, libraries and laboratory most at times placed both students and teachers under stress, thereby affecting the learning and teaching in the school resulting in failure and low performance. Classroom environment is vital to students success and impacts students in many ways, one that allows students to feel comfortable and confident as a leaner, the need for space includes how furnitures are arranged and organized, who clean the classroom and the overall colour and brightness. Hostel facilities, is shelter for the students who from far places students live there with each other and learn the values of discipline and cooperation, hostels are situated close to schools, it saves time of the study for the students, life in a hostel is helpful to the students in so many ways disciple, sense of responsibility in matters of handling of the books, health and cloths. Library facilities, library conjures up images of books, books remain a cone feature and are beneficial in many ways to understood, help students educate themselves. Laboratory facilities provide students with the opportunities to interact directly with natural phenomena, chemical, data collected by others using tools, material collection techniques and models. Electricity is generated at power stations which use various fuel sources including coal, gas, oil, biomass water, wind, geothermal or solar. Electricity generation is provided 3 by both government owned corporations and private companies. Water is essential for maintaining an adequate food supply and a productive environment for the plants and miobes worldwide, as human populations and economics. Common room could be said to be the heart of the college as a physical room, its where students gather every day for various mission and form a community, the common room is very crucial to students learning. Student learning environment cannot be isolated from the social needs, interaction, and socialization. A dinning hall is a special place set aside for food, sources, preparation, supply, services style, many students food preference nutrition, food safety, relationship to academic programme and students forming a community, students learnt enough while on dinning services, table manner, students can attempt rules, where students can placed high value. The researcher hope this study will help solve the problem of mass failures in external examination. Fact from institutions like NECO who are responsible for conducting basic Education Examinations certificates for this junior classes shows that there is a sharp failure in the performance of students in Federal Government Colleges in Niger state. Situational analysis also revealed that in Federal Government College Minna, student do not have conducive learning environment, infrastructural facilities such as libraries, labouratories, lack of classrooms, lack of desk, students hostels are in a deplorable state thereby constituting the poor performance of students. The researcher observed in the school under study that, lack of classrooms can hamper effective teaching and learning as most of the schools do not have adequate classrooms and that students 4 receive lesson under a shade. This is because when students are taking lesson under shade or overcrowding class, in such environment, learning cannot take place; lack of desk in most of the classrooms could discourage students when lesson is going on. Consequently, this could result into students struggling with available desks thereby distracting the entire learning environment. Situational analysis also revealed that students do not have adequate and good equipment that will facilitate learning for example in Federal Government Girls College New Bussa, students do not have adequate library, labouratory facilities, electricity/water, common room/dinning hall, this could affect the morale of students that will want to be scientist tomorrow having known the importance of laboratory to science subjects.

Statement of the Problem

Infrastructural facilities are vital and from a major part of effective teaching and learning, its main objective is to equip the school environment with all the necessary infrastructural facilities for effective teaching and learning. Problems of inadequate infrastructural facilities in Federal Government Colleges in Niger state, have attracted a lot of public attention/debate. Feedback on students learning outcomes in junior secondary school social studies in Nigeria is not encouraging. Students‟ performance in junior secondary school certificate examination in social studies from 2010-2015, shows that about 61% of the students who sat for the examination within this period could not attain a credit level. Studies such as; Bullock (2007), Udouroso (2011) and Abubakar (2014) have shown a number of factors responsible for this, poor teaching methodology, lack of tiem management during lesson delivery by teachers, poor questioning skill, lack of teachers motivation among others.

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Updated: 21st December 2019 — 6:49 pm

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