Background to the Study

Education is essential for its utilitarian role in empowering people and permitting rapid economic and social mobility, particularly in developing countries like Nigeria (Federal Government of Nigeria, National Policy on Education, 2004). According to Adeliyi (1993), the demand for education is insatiable and so high that efforts made by the federal government to provide adequate education for the citizens, especially the youth, are often outstripped by an ever-rising demand. Adeliyi insisted that government should for such reason spend an appreciable amount of its annual budget on education. Schooling in every society is regarded as a crucial vehicle for development of the individual, the structure, the process and the social institution. This could be a major reason for school operators to keep emphasizing the type of working harmony or otherwise that pervades Nigerian schools in order to bring about increase and proficient job commitment, involvement and effectiveness among others. Generally, The Federal Government of Nigeria, National Policy on Education is regarded by experts to be the policy thrust upon which the primary, secondary and tertiary levels of education are rooted in Nigeria. Teachers, whether in private or public schools, are saddled with the responsibility of performing the basic roles under a conducive and harmonious organisational context. Suffice it to say that this is why the National Policy on Education provides a watershed upon which the primary, secondary and tertiary levels of education are rooted. Specifically, the objectives of secondary education include inculcating a spirit of self-reliance, industry, versatility, and self discipline in youth; equipping students to live successfully in our modern age of science and technology; and developing and projecting Nigerian culture, art and language as 2 well as the world‟s cultural heritage (FGN, NPE 2004). If secondary education is to achieve the objectives stated above, attention must not only be paid to the human resources earmarked to impart knowledge in order to realize those objectives but also on the context in which teachers perform their duties. The foregoing situation calls for interest in those elements that impact on work behaviour, job involvement and job accomplishment of secondary school teachers as a very important level in Nigerian educational system. Thus, a study of school organisational climate as perceived by different scholars in relation with student and teacher characteristics (Lane and Menzies 2005) has become a major concern. The organisational climate of the school therefore becomes important as it reveals the context in which teachers carry out their duties for the achievement of the goals of the school. Research has shown that teachers – as individuals, and schools – as units of instruction, can produce extraordinary learning, if all relevant variables, classified under school characteristics (available facilities, class size and school policies) are present (Wagner and Davis, 2006). School characteristics are the set of internal qualities that distinguish one school from another and influence the behaviour of each school member. It also refers to the working condition among super-ordinates (head teachers) and subordinates (teachers) in a bid to achieve the objectives of the school. Three of the principal agents in secondary school education – principals, vice principals and teachers – should be our concern in terms of the achievement of the goals of the school. School characteristics denote the typical notable features or elements which impact on teachers‟ job performance, and invariably students‟ performance. These include class size (student- teacher ratio) and policies of school administration. Class size determines the organisation of the classroom as a major determinant of a school‟s success or failure while school policy refers to a course or principle of 3 action proposed and/or approved by the management of a school to facilitate the achievement of the set goals of that school. In addition, leadership style, morale and motivation are considered to be contributory factors in school processes. Motivation, according to Merrick (2006), is expected to perform three primary functions, which are: a directing function which steers an individual’s behaviour towards or away from specific goals, an activating function that energises action in pursuit of goals, and an organizational function which influences the combination of behavioural components into coherent, goal-oriented behavioural sequences.

Statement of the Problem

The quality of schools in terms of the learning facilities available, class size, teachers‟ commitment and motivation; as well as the management style of the leadership of the schools among others are generally considered to be major incentives for teachers to teach and impart quality knowledge, thereby facilitating the achievement of the set organisational goals and objectives of the school. Thus, both government and non-government owners of schools invest resources in the attempt to improve quality and standard of schools. As the most urbanized state in the country (National Population Commission, 2006) Lagos State, with constant migration from other parts of the country and the rural areas, is witnessing increasing pressure on the resources and capacity of the state to cope with the educational needs of the citizenry. According to Fabiyi and Fagbamiye (2001) resource availability, allocation and utilization have been perceived as indicators of effectiveness in the school situation. Resources in the school situation include personnel as well as physical and material resources. Hence, the Lagos State government has encouraged the existence and operation of private schools both to cater for the growing educational needs of the rising population and also to encourage those who can pay, have access, to the kind of education they seek for their children.

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Updated: 7th July 2019 — 6:52 am

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