Background to the study
Examination has been generally accepted as the best means of assessment. It is a formal test of knowledge or ability. Infact, in a school setting, examination is a means of evaluating the quantity of knowledge a student has acquired within a specific period of time. Adekunle (2003) sees examination as an instrument used for the assessment of individual skills and knowledge-content, both in general and specific area of study. Teaching and learning become more effective when the students are subjected to an examination process to determine the extent to which the students have assimilated the content of the instruction given and the teacher can also assess himself from the performance of the students. Unfortunately, this all important means of assessing students has become ineffective as all forms of malpractice has been introduced into the system. Adesina (2000) traced the history of examination malpractice in Nigeria to 1914. When there was a leakage of the Cambridge examination. Cheating became widespread in schools hence in 1967, the Alexander Commission was set up as a special commission of inquiry to investigate the incidences of malpractice in Nigeria. In 1977, there was a widespread leakage of the West Africa School Certificate Examination questions. Government took it as a challenge to address issues of examination malpractice. A special conference was held in that regard at Ibadan in 1986. Decrees were promulgated, schools were sanctioned, results cancelled and invigilators arrested all in a bid to curb malpractice. The irony of it all is that despite the several attempts made by school authorities, government agencies, parents and church leaders in trying to concentise the Nigerian students on the evils of examination malpractice, this menace is still in its increase in the various schools. There is the need to find out the causes of examination malpractice in Nigerian schools.
Examination plays several important roles in the teaching-learning process. It is a necessary incentive to study, a means of getting feedback and a yard-stick for evaluating the effectiveness of instructional delivery, selection, placement, and for employment (Anderman & Midgley, 2000; Conde, 2006). According to Mucheke (2006) examinations are used to assess and evaluate whether the right knowledge has been acquired or not through weekly tests, terminal tests, mock examinations and national examinations administered at the end of a given course.
Globally, poor and declining academic performance of pupils in schools owing to examination malpractices has become so alarming that the achievement of the set goals of teaching in primary school for sustainable development is endangered (Anderman, 2000; Bello & Oke, 2011). Evers and Walberg (2003) maintain that examination malpractices is one of the common social ills threatening the educational sector at all levels and the fact that it is found among the primary school pupils is even more worrisome. This is because the primary school is the foundation of any child‟s educational development. Denga and Denga (2005) affirmed that examination malpractices is thriving in primary schools where one would have thought that the children are young and innocent.
Statement of the problem
The occurrence of examination malpractices at any level of educational stratum poses the greatest threat to the validity and reliability of any examination and consequently to the authenticity and recognition of certificates issued (Abuga, 2015). According to Nyamwange, Ondima and Onderi (2013) examination malpractices, also popularly known as cheating is a vice that has bedeviled the education system for many years. These are examination leakage, irregularities, and cheating during class test, at the end of the each term. Various attempts have been made to reduce the malpractice, yet the problem now persists even at greater rate there is need involve permanent solution to this cankerworm
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