1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Globally, water resources are becoming increasingly vulnerable as a result of escalating demand, arising from population growth, expanding industrialization due to rising living standards, pollution, and climate change impacts. This situation is further exacerbated by poor management practices and unsustainable extraction of water for various consumptive uses. Consequently, many regions around the world, particularly urban areas are becoming water stressed and conflicts over access to water are becoming ever more common (Ashantha, & Meththika, 2017). In Nigeria, Water is widely regarded as the most essential of natural resources, yet freshwater systems are directly threatened by human activities and stand to be further affected by anthropogenic climate change.
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM]
Proper watershed management requires a painstaking knowledge of the hydrological components that drives the water resources of the watershed. The spatial and temporal knowledge of the basin parameters are required for watershed resources allocation, construction of hydraulic structure, sediment control to enhance the sub-basin productivity. The estimation of the Hadeija Sub-basin watershed parameters that includes water yield, ground water recharge, lateral flow, surface runoff, and sediment yield, loss due to potential evapotranspiration and evaporation losses are paramount to the sustainable utilizations of the watershed resources. The understanding of the watershed hydrological parameters, it characteristics and that of climate variables may subvert the problem of over sizing of the dam’s reservoir and poor sedimentation control, as in the case of Tiga and Challawa Gorge Dam whose reservoir capacity were reduced due to their impacts on downstream users.
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