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UTILIZATION OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN TEACHING AND LEARNING OF GOVERNMENT IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

The emergence of information and communication technology (ICT) has revolutionized the way we access, process, store, retrieve and disseminate information within organizations or across the globe. Whether it is vocal, pictorial, textual, numeric or macro- electric based, hence ICT is now a topical issue in Nigeria. It may not be because it is relatively new in this part of the world, but because ICT encompass a range of technologies application systems of microprocessors that have had profound impact on the society and its way of life. Information and communication technology (ICT) revolution is gradually affecting the nature of leaning and the production of knowledge and transforming the world in unexpected way (Adewoyin, 2007). This has facilitated the paradigm shift from the traditional instructional material or traditional pedagogical methods to a more modern and innovative technological based teaching learning methods. The traditional instructional method is the teacher centered approach of instructional delivery while the modern and innovative technological based teaching creates the opportunity for interactions between the teacher and the students. ICT has simplified education through the application of electronics media, internet among other ICT devices. ICT is an acronym which stands for information and telecommunication technology. Ayodele in Ol 2 refers to ICT as a general expression, which covers computers, telecommunication and electronics. Yoloye and Adekawonishe, (2005) define ICT as computer based tools used by people to work on the information and communication processing needs of an organization. As far back as 2002 Badru views ICT as the science and activity of processing, storing and sending information by using computer. This implies that information and communication technology is the use of hardware and software to enhance communication. ICT refers to devices used in association with the computer which is capable of receiving, storing, transferring, processing and sending ideas from one source to another. There are different ICT devices that can be used in teaching. Ugwu and Oboegbulem (2011) state that ICTs in education encompasses a great range of rapidly evolving technologies such as desktops, notebooks, digital camera, local area network (LAN), the internet, the World Wide Web (WWW), CD Rom, DVDs, applications spread sheets, tutorials, simulations, electronic mails, digital libraries, computer mediated conferencing, video conferencing and virtual reality. It covers computer hardware, software, the network and other digital devices like video, audio, camera and so on which convert information (text, sound, motion etc) into digital form. ICT devices for teaching and learning include Computer, Internet, Power Point, Television, Overhead Projectors, Camera, Radio Cassette, Video Tape, Audio Cassette, Audio CD, World Wide Web (WWW), Telephone, etc (Adeyemi & Olayele, 2010). The various ICT facilities used in the teaching learning process in schools include; radio, television, computers, overhead projectors, optical fibres, fax machines, CD-Rom, Internet, electronic notice board, slides, digital multimedia, video/ VCD machine and so on (Babajide & Bolaji, 2003; Bryers, 2004 ; Bandele, 2006 & Ofodu, 2007). Some of the examples of ICT tools according to Akuegwu, Ntukidem, Ntukidem and Jaga (2011) 3 include computer lap tops, video machines, multimedia projectors or power points, digital cameras, internet facilities, computer net work, telephone (GSM and land phones), e-library, television programmes, data base among others. The relevance of ICT in teaching and learning process cannot be overemphasized. According to Ajayi (2008) teaching and learning have gone beyond the teacher standing in front of a group of pupils and disseminating information to them without the students’ adequate participation. Ajayi reiterates that with the aid of ICT, teachers can take students beyond traditional limits, ensure their adequate participation in teaching and learning process and create vital environments to experiment and explore. This new development is a strong indication that the era of teachers without ICT skills are gone. Any classroom teacher with adequate and professional skills in ICT utilization will definitely have his students perform better in classroom learning. ICT provide a variety of tools to support and facilitate teacher’s professional competence. It transforms teaching and helps teachers to be more efficient and effective, thereby increasing their interest in teaching (Yusuf, 2005a). ICT can assist in the organization and the structure of the course and course materials thereby promoting rethinking and revision of curriculum and instructional strategies (Egomo, Enyi & Tah, 2012). The authors reiterate that ICTs increase teachers’ emphasis on individualized instruction, and as such enable them spend more time with individual students. This suggests that use of ICT in teaching and learning process supports individualized instruction. Individualized instruction is a process of teaching where the individual differences of different learners are attended to in the teaching and learning process. ICT utilization helps students to carry out more independent work and gives the teacher more time to focus on teaching higher level concepts in the classroom (Yusuf, 2005a). Ololube in Akuegwu, Ntukidem, Ntukjidem, and Jaga (2011) reported that ICT has the potential to 4 accelerate, enrich and deepen teachers’ skills; motivate and engage students in learning; helps to relate school experiences to work practices; contributes to radical changes in schools and strengthens teaching. In the words of Ojajuni, Agbelusi and Aladesote (2013) ICTs help to relate academics to the practices of today’s work. Studies have revealed that, students who learn in a technology-rich environment experience positive effects on their performance in all subject areas (Fagbamiye, in Eze and Aja, (2014). In the same line of thought, Becta (2003) states that ICT provides fast and accurate feedback to student and speed of computation and graphing, thus freeing student to focus on strategies and interpretations. Information and communication technologies, especially network technologies have been found to encourage active learning, support innovative teaching, reduce the isolation of teachers, and encourage teachers and students to become active researchers and learners.

Statement of the Problem

Information and telecommunication technology (ICT) has revolutionized teaching and learning in advanced countries of the world. In order to key into the current trend in teaching and learning, the Governments of Nigeria have made several efforts towards utilization of ICT in teaching. The essence of these efforts at utilizing ICT in teaching is to enable Nigerian school system produce world class graduates at all levels of the education system who could compete favourably with graduates of other countries of the world in the labour market and other spheres of life. Regrettably, studies have shown that ICTs are not considered central to the teaching and learning process especially in the developing countries Nigeria inclusive as most of the tests and examinations in schools follow traditional paper and pencil instead of the use of improved technology, on-line assessment, teleconferencing among other ICT uses for instruction. In spite of the role ICT plays in the educational development and by extension, the overall development of a country, there is still the problem of utilization of ICT in teaching in the Nigerian educational system. Despite the fact that ICT constitute a potent tool for enriching traditional means of teaching, teachers still experience numerous problems in their attempt to use ICT in teaching. Some sources indicate that teachers fear utilizing ICT in teaching because of lack of ICT skills, reluctance to change, ICT facilities are very costly to acquire and maintain, unavailability of ICT facilities, erratic power supply, gender reasons and school location barriers among other factors. The researcher wonders whether this is the situation in Awka Education Zone of Anambra State where attempts have been made by the government to procure ICT facilities for use in teaching. Thus, the problem of this study put in question form is ‘what is the extent of utilization of ICT in teaching Government in senior secondary schools in Awka Education Zone of Anambra State

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Updated: 10th May 2019 — 5:33 pm

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