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FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH LATE PRESENTATION OF SYMPTOMATIC CANCERS AMONG HIV INFECTED PERSONS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background

Cancer is becoming one of the leading causes of increased morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is predicted that by 2020, new cases of cancer in the world will increase to over 15 million while deaths attributable to cancers about 12 million.1 Much of the burden of cancer morbidity and mortality will occur in the developing countries because of the tilt to industrialization, change in diet from high roughages to refined foods with a sedentary life style, increased tobacco use as well as the compounding burden of cancers associated with infectious diseases of which HIV infection carries a large proportion.2 Nigeria has the second highest number of people living with HIV/AIDS in the world, with 1000 new cases of infection daily and 217,148 related deaths, one third attributed to cancers.3 Cancers associated with HIV infection are classified into AIDS defining and Non AIDS defining. The exact mechanism by which these cancers occur is not well understood but they are associated with low immunity measured in the blood as the “Cluster of Differentiation” 4 and 8 cells (CD4 and CD8 cell counts). AIDS defining cancers are Kaposi sarcoma, Non Hodgkin‟s lymphoma and cervical cancer.

Problem Statement

Late presentation is the most important factor responsible for high morbidity and mortality due to cancer in Nigeria. Site based studies show that a large proportion of cancers diagnosed in Nigeria present late. The proportion of late stage cancers range between 60-92% in the last 10years. Cancer is becoming a leading cause of death worldwide, with 18% of these cancer due to infection. HIV is one of the key infections implicated in infection induced cancer. The burden of cancers will therefore be highest in developing countries such as ours because of the high prevalence of infection further compounded by lack of exercise, smoking and change in diet from high roughages to refined foods.

How to get complete project materials


Step 1: make payment of N2,000 to the below bank details


NAME:                       TITUS AYANI SOLA
BANK:                       FIRST BANK PLC
ACCT NO:                  3111741042
ACCOUNT TYPE:       SAVINGS
AMOUNT:                  N2000

NAME:                       TITUS AYANI SOLA


BANK:                       GTB BANK
ACCT NO:                  0262412831
ACCOUNT TYPE:       SAVINGS

STEP 2: AFTER PAYMENT SEND THE PROJECT TOPIC AND YOUR EMAIL ADDRESS TO 08063666753

CLICK ON THE IMAGE BELOW TO REQUEST FOR MATERIAL
Updated: 30th April 2019 — 9:34 am

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