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EFFICACIES OF DNA AND LIVE OOCYSTS VACCINES AGAINST EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Study Coccidiosis in chickens is caused by an apicomplexan parasite belonging to the genus Eimeria of which at least seven species are incriminated in the cause of the disease (Conway and Elizabeth, 2007; McDougald and Fitz-Coy, 2008). Infection with Eimeria occurs when a susceptible chicken ingests the abundant infective sporulated oocysts from the environment, contaminated feed or water (Majaro, 2001). This infectious disease causes economic losses worldwide estimated to be greater than $3 billion annually (Williams, 1999; Dalloul and Lillehoj, 2006). Approximately, 80% of these losses are due to mortality, inefficient feed utilization and impaired growth rate of broilers and or reduced egg production in layers. While the remaining 20% losses is due to the cost of chemoprophylaxis (Wiliams et al., 1999). Eimeria tenella is the commonest and most pathogenic of all the Eimeria species affecting chicken and is prevalent throughout the world. Eimeria tenella is the major cause of haemorrhagic coccidiosis in poultry establishment worldwide causing high morbidity and variable mortalities. (Taylor et al., 2007). Good animal husbandry such as maintaining litter quality, controlling house temperature, ventilation, moisture level and thorough cleaning between flocks plays a vital role in the prevention and control of coccidiosis by reducing oocysts sporulation and recycling (Blake and Tomley, 2014). However, good husbandry alone is not adequate for the control of the disease. Chemo-prophylactic and chemotherapeutic treatment so far remains the most practiced means of controlling coccidiosis. However, the increase in resistance of parasite population and increasing public pressure to limit the use of chemicals in animal feeds highlights the need to find alternative methods (Blake et al., 2011). Vaccination against coccidiosis using live oocysts vaccine is the most effective way of control and prevention of the disease since vaccinated birds usually develop solid immunity against secondary homologous infection (Williams, 2006). However, production limitation including a requirement for in vivo passage has limited the production capacity and elevated the cost of live vaccines (Williams, 2006). Consequently, their use is limited to the breeding and egglaying sectors of the poultry industry and rarely used in the broiler sector where economic margin per bird is much lower (Blake and Tomley, 2014).

Statement of the Problem

Records have shown that poultry farming is one of the fastest growing sectors of animal production in many countries and expansion is predicted to continue for at least 30 years in Africa and Asia (Blake and Tomley, 2014). In Africa including Nigeria, many people depend on small scale poultry production systems for food and source of income but, diseases such as coccidiosis are a major limiting factor (Jatau et al., 2012). Avian coccidiosis is one of the major diseases of poultry world-wide, which result to great economic losses in excess of 3 billion US dollars annually (Shirley et al., 2005). It is a major recurring disease that exerts negative effect on profitable and sustainable small scale poultry enterprises around the world including in Africa (Fornace et al., 2013).

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Step 1: make payment of N2,000 to the below bank details


NAME:                       TITUS AYANI SOLA
BANK:                       FIRST BANK PLC
ACCT NO:                  3111741042
ACCOUNT TYPE:       SAVINGS
AMOUNT:                  N2000

NAME:                       TITUS AYANI SOLA


BANK:                       GTB BANK
ACCT NO:                  0262412831
ACCOUNT TYPE:       SAVINGS

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Updated: 20th February 2019 — 12:39 pm

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