This introductory chapter presents the background of the study, the statement of the problem, purpose of the study, research objectives, research questions, significance of the study, scope, limitations, assumptions, operational definitions of terms, theoretical and conceptual frameworks.
Background of the study
The primary purpose of education is to bring about desirable change in behaviour through acquisition of skills, attitudes, competencies, critical and creative thinking. Teaching is a complex and demanding task that requires highly specialized skills, knowledge and resources to impact significantly on student learning. Availability and utilization of resources in an organization is important in achievement of its goals and objectives. Students learning outcome is influenced by appropriate utilization of school resources. Investing in educational resources is the key to ensuring that schools become institutions where students‟ work together, learn from each other and benefit from a supportive school environment, and consequently maximize student learning so that all students achieve their full learning potential (United Nations Scientific and Cultural Organization, (UNESCO), 2007).
The physical, human and financial resources invested in schools influence not only the education provided to students but also aspects of teachers and student motivation and consequently the educational outcomes. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) shows that resource shortages hinder instruction and lower student performance (OECD, 2007). In addition, inequalities in student‟s educational performance often reflect disparities in in the resources invested in schools (OECD, 2008). In some education systems, there are concerns that schools not only lack the resources to meet the educational requirements of their students, but that schools may have fewer resources with which to provide instruction to their students (OECD, 2008). In schools, there are a wide variety of resources that are directly or indirectly related to educational outcomes.
Statement of the Problem
Teachers, resources and the school environment have an obvious impact on education and eventually student‟s performance (UNESCO, 2007). Quality education is no doubt a function of availability and appropriate utilization of input resources. According to Wenglinsky (2005) the availability and utilization of human and non-human resources determines the efficiency of the school system. Abudul-Kareen (2003) asserts that teachers require quality and adequate resources in order to ensure school success. Glaring disparities in academic performance have been observed in secondary schools in Mathioya District. This is despite the fact that the schools enroll students with comparable entry behavior and receive comparable funding from the government and other stake holders.
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