Background of the Study
Agriculture is the art and science of cultivating the land and rearing of animals for the purpose of providing food for man, feed for animals and raw materials for the manufacturing industries. Agriculture is part of the culture of Nigerians this is because young people are informally educated agriculturally as early as six years of age, which may be regarded as a period of apprenticeship in the life of a Nigerian.
Agriculture however, is covered basically with husbandry of crops and animals for food and other purposes. It is the foundation upon which the development of stable human communities such as villages and towns depend in all parts of the world.
Agriculture has contributed much to the country’s economy, some of the importance of agriculture are as follow:
- It provides essential commodities such as fibre and shelter which are vital for comfortable living.
- It provides food for individual workers and all other workers who do not engage in Agriculture themselves.
- Agriculture supplies most of the raw materials used in industries. Examples are cotton, rubber, cocoa, groundnut and timber.
- Agriculture provides market for industrial goods such as insecticides, fungicides and fertilizer.
- It serves as foreign exchange earners for the country.
- It provides employment opportunity for many categories of people. In Nigeria, about 65 – 80% of the populations are engaged in farming and related operation.
New nation policy on Education (2002) includes Agricultural Science among the core subjects to be taught in all secondary school. The policy also prescribed the teaching of Practical Agricultural at J.S.S. level. The objective of the natural curriculum for J.S.S. is to provide adequate orientation for the integration of Agricultural Science with production work at school and to prepare students for further activities in Agriculture.
Agricultural Science Education was also introduced into Nigeria secondary schools so as to provide students with adequate skills to make living and progressively advance in farming.
Advance food production through improvement of Agricultural production technique acquired by the students equip them well to be able to live effectively and conveniently in the modem age science and technology.
The curriculum further recommended that;
- Each student is guaranteed adequate equipment, farm space, farm structure and regular, supply of fertilizer and animal feeds
- In addition to having a farm land, each school should keep at least two types of farm animals.
- Students’ achievement should be continuously assessed through various forms of test and during field and laboratory practical.
- Individual assessment should be carried out on activities in crop production, while group assessment should be restricted to performance in animal production activities.
Agricultural education is one of the vocational subjects in secondary setting. Education has been defined as the process whereby desirable changes in human behavior are produced within people. It can also be defined as the means of acquiring knowledge attitude and belief. However, for teaching and learning to be meaningful, adequate resources must be available. Teaching resources are all the things used for effective learning to take place. The tools of the teaching-learning process and they clarify, motivate, sustain, interest, explain, enhance linage and positively change attitudes of the learners in the right direction.
Teaching resource include materials, equipment, techniques, certain message and people that are used to enhance the teaching process. Learning resource in education can be divided into three; these are human, material and physical facilities. Human resources are the teacher, learners, administrators, member of the community, a vocational expert like curriculum planers and designers’ librarian, guidance counselors, education technologist and evaluators.
Statement of the Problem
In schools, Agricultural Science as a practical or vocational subject is been reviewed as a labour intensive subject where cutlasses and hoes are frequently used for the cultivation of crops on the schools farm. Despite the fact that there are some facilities available for the teaching of Agricultural Science in secondary schools and teachers are being trained by the government to handle this subject at the Junior and Senior schools levels, yet the resources available are not enough for effective teaching of Agricultural Science in secondary schools. The major concern of this study is therefore to examine resources available in the teaching of Agricultural Science in Secondary School
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