EFFECTS OF JOGGING ON CARDIO-METABOLIC SYNDROME OF ADOLESCENTS
Background of the Study
Cardio-metabolic syndrome (CMS) is an area that has received much attention in recent
time, due to the prevalence of the syndrome worldwide. It has become a major threat to the global public health (American Heart Association (AHA), 2009; International Diabetes Federation (IDF), 2012; American Diabetes Association (ADA), 2016). CMS is described as a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which occur together more often than by chance alone (Matthew, Singh & Arora, 2011; Okafor, 2012). Research indicates a strong association between CMS and subsequent risks for diabetes and cardiovascular event. Mathew et al. (2011) suggested that it may be a risk factor for the incident of chronic kidney disease. Studies have shown that the syndrome develops during childhood and is prevalent among overweight children and adolescents (Weiss, Bremer, and Lustig, 2013; Skinner, Perrin, Moss & Skelton, 2015; Mansour, Nassef, & Malt, 2016).
The World Health Organization (WHO) (1999), adapted a criterion for defining CMS in
children, which requires three or more of obesity, abnormal blood glucose, high systolic
blood pressure (SBP), high triglycerides (TG), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol
(HDL-C) or high total cholesterol (TC). The criterion for the CMS in adults developed by
the United States (US) National Cholesterol Education Programme (NCEP) (2001), was
modified and revised by many investigators as child-specific definition which includes
abnormalities in any three of high blood glucose, high TG, high systolic blood pressure
(SBP), high diastolic blood pressure (DBP), low HDL-C and high body mass index (BMI).
The IDF (2007), provided a definition of CMS for use in children as an individual who has central adiposity plus at least two of the following criteria: high TG, low HDL-C, high
SBP, high DBP, high fasting plasma glucose or previously diagnosed T2DM.
Studies (Okafor, 2012; Broodai, Cherry, Scattar & Relly, 2014) revealed that several risk
factors exist for the syndrome. Obesity is the most common component that characterizes CMS. It is commonly associated with insulin resistance. In Africa, it has been observed that unhealthy weight gain and CMS are not limited to adult population. Adolescent and young people are also affected (IDF, 2007; Okafor, 2012; Weiss et al., 2013). The BMI cut off points are used generally to establish overweight/obesity as recommended by IDF (2007).
However, BMI does not provide any insight into regional fat distribution, but visceral fat
does. Anthropometric measures of waist circumference and abdominal skin fold are used for rapid, but accurate estimation of visceral fat (Chen, Chen, Chuang, Chiang, Chiao & Chang, 2014). Recently, digital machines from different manufacturers are used to estimate visceral fat after entering height and gender information. Previous research findings suggest that abdominal visceral fat affects the metabolic processes and is an important risk factor for morbidity and mortality and more often a common component that characterizes CMS (Srinivasan, Myers, & Berenson, 2002). The visceral fat (also known as organ fat orintra-abdominal fat) is located inside the abdominal cavity.
Statement of the Problem
The on-going global rise in the prevalence of CMS among all age and ethnic groups is
accompanied by a higher increase in serious health risks, such as T2DM and the
development of cardiovascular damage. The CMS is becoming a major challenge to the
public health in the developing world. For example, 30% of obese Saudi children had three or more of the components of the CMS (Taha, Ahmed & Sadiq, 2009). Data in Kuwait indicate the same (30%) prevalence with Saudi adolescents (Boodai, Chery, Sattar & Reilly, 2014). Contrary to earlier thoughts, CMS is no longer rare in Africa. In Nigeria, using the IDF criteria, 14.3% of CMS was found among overweight and obese adolescents 14 years of age and above (Onyenekwu, Dada & Babatunde, 2017). This warrants effort to develop preventive and risk-reduction strategies which are easier and natural like jogging exercise (Okafor, 2012).
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