EFFECTS OF HOME BACKGROUND ON LEARNING OF MATHEMATICS IN PRIMARY SCHOOL
Background of the Study
This chapter presents the historical background information, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses and significance of the study. The study also involves limitation, scope of the study and organization of the study. School management for a long time is in crisis on how to improve academic performance, more so in mathematics teaching and learning process (Chua & Mosha, 2015; Kapolesya, 2010). The question might be what could be the role of the home background factors in supporting children especially academic performance in
mathematics. This study is purposefully intended to examine how pupils’ home background factors influencing mathematics learning in primary schools.
Studies have shown that success at school is associated with social background factors as these factors can greatly affect young children’s cognitive skills (Giddens, 1997). Disadvantaged children (children with poor social background) start schooling with significantly lower cognitive skills than their more advantaged peers. Home environments vary in many aspects such as the parents’ level of education, economic status, occupational status, religious background, values, interests, parents’ expectation for their children, and family size among others. Students coming from
different home environments are affected differently by such variations (Ogoye, 2007). The home environment also affects the academic performance of pupils in many ways. Thus the parents need to create positive home environment for improvement in students’ quality of their academic work.
This suggests that the low background status perpetuates educational deprivation. For example, wealthier and better educated parents utilize basic education and deploy resources in a manner that creates preschool conditions which are conducive to a successful school performance (Ayoo, 2002). Families set the lifestyle and influences life chances for the child. The same lifestyle which is attached to school, determines the motivation with which its children pursue basic education. The evidence from Mwoma (2010) indicates that education usually entails expenses such as buying
reading materials, stationery among others. Thus, family economic status into question may influence children’s school achievement.
Statement of the Problem
One of the most stable and consistently observed phenomena in the field of education is the impact of students’ home background on academic achievement. Many theories have been proposed to account for this phenomenon, but there is little consensus about which explanation is the most powerful. Students’ mathematics achievement is often associated with the future economic power and competitiveness of a country. Therefore, the desire to understand and identify factors that may have meaningful and consistent relationships with mathematics achievement has been
shared among national policy makers and educators around the world (Wagemaker, 2003). However, the academic challenges facing pupils in Nigeria both private and public schools cannot be solved by educators alone, in isolation from the parents or families alone? More collaboration between the school and home will need to be
focused on dealing with these problems. However, since home background factors are a complex and multidimensional concept which need clarification based on relevant contexts.
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