EFFECT OF FEAR OF RETIREMENT ON JOB PERFORMANCE OF TEACHERS IN SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   Background to the Study

Retirement which can be described as the termination of a working career, it is as sure as death and it may come in various forms. It may come suddenly as retrenchment or lay-off to workers whose employers decide to dispense with their services. It may come in form of a long notice. For example, government civil service reform policy stipulates that except for judges and university professors, all other workers should be prepared to go on compulsory retirement at age 60 or after 35 years of service whichever comes earlier. Industrial firms may suddenly retrench their workers for redundancy, low productivity or lack of raw materials. Trade union activists may lose their jobs if their employers regard their continuity in service as a threat to their organisation. Protracted illness or accident may incapacitate some workers who are eventually forced to retire (Omoegun, et al 1996). In most cases, people are not prepared for retirement, in terms of long range planning against a rain day, even when there is retirement insurance. Therefore many people fear to retire.

The fear of retirement is a very important factor militating against efficiency, integrity, loyalty, commitment, and dedication. The fear of retirement usually leads to psychological insecurity and unwillingness on the part of the worker to plan for the future. To some dedicated and committed workers, retirement may come as a rude shock that may shatter their hopes in future thereby leading to poor work performance (Ayo, 1998).

To most workers, the mere thought of retirement is dreadful, frightening and depressing because it may connote misery, loss of status and prestige, poverty, drastic reduction in income, boredom, loneliness, inactivity or even premature death. With this attitudes, workers who are approaching retiring age, who have not prepare for it, may not do their jobs as effectively as they could.

Retirement normally should be a period in the life of a worker to rest from the onerous tasks of previous years. It should be a period to sit back and enjoy the fruit of past labour. To ensure this, the guidance counsellor is called upon to educate adults on precautionary measures to be taken to make retirement a joy and not a misery. Anything that has a beginning most have an end and retirement of a worker is no exception. The time to start to prepare for retirement should be from the first day of employment (Adeleke, 2003).

Retirement is a period workers cease to be actively engaged in daily work or job activities. It is a time of rest and planning for successful retired life. Regrettably, many workers today do not prepare or plan for their retirement. These workers do not put necessary things in place towards planning for their compulsory retirement after active work life (Uzozie, 2004).

Many civil servants who are retired today regret their not planning well for their retirement from work. These workers did not embark on savings, investments in stocks or in profit-oriented ventures that will yield good dividend for them during their retirement. No wonder some people after retirement start to seek another employment almost immediately because they do not have the wherewithal to cushion the effect of retirement. Most retirees develop serious ailments such as hypertension due to much thinking resulting from sudden unplanned retirement. Others become psychologically imbalance due to the shock of their unplanned retirement and the uncertainty that await them during retirement, while many die as a result of distress during retirement (Mundi, 1999).

Often during the process of ageing, the individual looking forward to retirement dreams of a day when he can put aside the duties and responsibilities that chain him to his routine (Thoroman, 1998). Yet, when he takes a closer look at retirement, it possesses severe threat to age. It signals the decline of vital powers to the point where he is no longer acceptable as a working partner in the forward movement of the society; from a productive point of view, it closes the door on the future, when an executive lays down his pen and closes his files, his authority is gone. A king could only put aside his crown if he dies, and to some, retirement is a psychological death, after which life is vegetative. To others, it signals the onset of the twilight of the gods, a slow decline through which they fight a losing battle to keep prestige, status, and even self-respect. The older citizens are always “infested” with fear of employers, who will turn them down (Davidson, 1998). They have learnt while in regular employment, many companies consider workers of retiring age as potential source of difficulty. As a result, those workers have fear in their own faith, in their physical and mental abilities to perform adequately (Attah, 2001).

Bam (2003) stated that retirement means a loss of status and prestige, loss of established comfortable routine, loss of old social contacts and particularly loss of respect from others and self-respect. James (1998) claimed that to retire and move to a leisure stress and anxiety. Based on research evidence, an individual should anticipate and plan for retirement for a more satisfying retirement. In the study of self-concept and roles during old age, Cavan (2004) reported that at the point of compulsory retirement, the main means of carrying out the special roles disappears. The man is lawyer without a case, a book keeper without books, a teacher without pupils, a mechanic without tools. Secondly, he is excluded from his group of former co-workers, as an isolated person, he may be completely unable to function in his former roles. Thirdly, as a retired person, he begins to find a different evaluation of himself in the mind of others, from the evaluation he has as an employed person, he is no longer seen with  respect in the eyes of former subordinates, praise in the faces of former superior and approval in the mind of former co-workers. The looking glass composed of his former important group throws back a changed image; he is done for! An old timer, old fashion, on the shelf.

1.1   Statement of the Problems

Lack of planning in life tends to make people to become imbalance psychologically, socially and in most cases, economically. For instance, many civil servants today, do not plan and put things in place in anticipation of their retirement. Most civil servants during their working days, behave as if there will not be a time to stay away from active service. Their orientation is to live freely and enjoy whatever they have. They do not have the perception to save for the rainy day. They fail to invest their money in money yielding ventures and most fail to train their children. The resultant effect of this unplannessness by some civil servants, is the problem of shock, disbelieve and hopelessness which often lead to frustration, regret with attendant ill-health and sudden death (Adiele, 1995). Some are carried away with pressures of office such as free cars, houses and others to plan for their retirement. There have been cases of poor health leading to sudden death of the retired person. If this trend is not checkmated, there is need to professional assist potential retirees to avoid fear on retirement.

How to get complete project materials


Step 1: make payment of N3000 to any of the bank below


NAME:                       TITUS AYANI SOLA
BANK:                       FIRST BANK PLC
ACCT NO:                  3111741042
ACCOUNT TYPE:       SAVINGS
AMOUNT:                  N3000

NAME:                       TITUS AYANI SOLA


BANK:                       WEMA BANK
ACCT NO:                  0237422220

STEP 2: AFTER PAYMENT SEND THE PROJECT TOPIC AND YOUR MODE OF DELIVERY (EMAIL ADDRESS OR WHATSAPP) TO 08063666753

Updated: 19th August 2018 — 7:28 pm