APPRAISAL OF AVAILABLE RESOURCES FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING OF ACCOUNTING EDUCATION IN UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA IN AFFILIATED WITH COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, IKERE EKITI
Background of the Study
Education is preparation for a human life. This is related to the acquisition of skills to earn a living. Today, definition of education is changing and increasing in scope. Our schools are confronted with new pressures arising from changing needs with students; societal expectation, economic changes and technological advancement.
Nevertheless, if education program is to be planned very well efforts for continued improvement are to be made, it is very necessary to have some conception of the goals that are being aimed at. These educational objectives become criteria by which materials are selected, content is outlined, instructional procedures are developed and human resources are also considered
Education, according to Coombs (2006) consists of two components. He classified these two components into inputs and output. According to him, inputs consist of human and materials resource and output are the goals and outcome of the educational process. If one wants to investigate and assess the education system in order to improve its performance, importance of one component on the other must be examined. Instructional materials which are educational input are very vital to the teaching of any subject in the school curriculum. Wales (2008) was of the opinion that the use of instructional materials would make discovered facts glued firmly to the memory of students.
Savoury (2009) also added that, a well-planned and imaginative use of visual aids in lessons should do much too bearish apathy, supplement inadequacy of books as well as arouse student interest by giving them something practical to see and touch, at the sometime helping to train them to think themselves.
Individuals and the society have seen education as the key to success in life. In all human societies, past and present, education has been instrumental to the survival of individuals and the society. The capacity of development in any country can be measured through a properly planned and well directed education.
Thus, Education is a behavioral characteristic. It affects skills, attitudes, belief, and ability to reason, knowledge and any other form which enable one to adjust and interact effectively with other individuals. Through the acquisition of skills, it enables an individual and the group to proceed into the actualization of the individuals’ destiny.
The universities in Nigeria prepare students for Bachelor of Science (B.Sc) in Accountancy and other professional areas (such as the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Nigeria (ICAN) and Association of National Accountants of Nigeria (ANAN). Thus, Accounting Profession in the Universities can contribute effectively to employability or self-reliance if the graduates of the universities possess enough accounting knowledge and skills to practice on their own or in partnership with others. Globally, the teaching and learning of accounting education is drastically changing as a result of increasing interaction from telecommunication network via internet. Since technology is becoming an important issue in the teaching and learning at all levels of education, there is need to replace the traditional pedagogical practices that still hinders these processes.
According to Agbata (2009), accounting is the art of recording, classifying, summarizing, reporting in significant manner and in terms of money, the transactions and events which are in part at least of a financial nature, and the interpretation of the results thereof. To Longe and Kazeen (2009), accounting is the process of recording, classifying, selecting, measuring, interpreting and communicating financial data of an organization to enable users make assessments and decision. Ama (2000), accounting is a set of theories, concepts (or ideas), and techniques by which financial data are processed into meaningful information for reporting, planning, controlling, and decision making purpose. Simply put, it is the process of recording, classifying, and organizing accounting information, for the benefit of management and other interested users.
Appraising the resources available for teaching accounting education courses University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Ikere Campus could be regarded as very important relative to training of future teachers hence it cannot be over emphasized. In the 6-3-3-4 educational system, the allocation of resources has been described as the backbone of the system. Indeed without equipment in the school, effective teaching of accounting would be greatly impaired.
But resources in educational context refer to teaching aids which will enhance learning or to facilitate study. The teaching of accounting can be visualized through contact with the world of work. Individual is engaged in various accounting activities and responsibilities which can be invited to the classroom or can be interviewed on the job. Extremely, valuable field trips can be taken to see the economy in action and to demonstrate the relation between academic accounting and the actual economy.
However, there had been a lot of discussions on the problems or factors affecting the teaching and learning of Accounting which are taken in the final examination of tertiary institutions.
Also instructional materials are anything that helps in the achievement of learning objective by helping to transmit experience through any of the sense. These resources includes community resources such as resource person like specialist in a subject or interest, audio – visual materials, video tape, picture, films, Television and tape recorder. However, without adequate methods, a clear set of objective and a carefully arrangement content is likely to fail to produce any satisfactory result on the part of the students.
This is likely to be so because methods by which the learners are kept are interested activities which result in learning. When students are involved in a process of inquiry, it will motivate them to learn. The study of Accounting calls for such activities as feeling, thinking discussing, and reading, doing and applying. These activities which contribute to the general education of students as well as their Accounting education can be prompted by effective teaching procedure. This super abundance of aids offers teachers considerable opportunities to make their work more effective, to release them from some task and to provide variety and flexibility.
According to Iyewarun (2005) resources comprised a vital part of the teaching learning process in the school system. They also provide rich experience for the students through such devices as motion, picture and lead them to discover significant issues, value and concepts. Some of the importance and specific advantages are the usefulness of resources materials, teaching aids serve the purpose of using a real object to aid symbiotic one in the process of teaching and learning for both slow and fast learners, teaching aids provide variety which enhances motivation and interest in students learning that has its basic on resource materials which tend to be more comprehensive, open and meaningful..
Nnadozie (2010) noted for the achievement of just and egalitarian society equal access to educational opportunities and technological take off are one of its major strategies for the government to ensure that students are properly and formerly equipped to promote sound and effective teaching and in particular that suitable textbooks, libraries, laboratories, workshops, qualified teacher and other facilities and provided for school.
In a developing country like Nigeria, training and development of manpower resources is highly needed in virtually all business organizations for its effectiveness. It is hard for any business organization to exist without adequate manpower hence it is an indispensable tool for any business organization. For accountants to perform their functions effectively there must be well designed training and development programs to enable them enhance their productivity. These training programmes may range from on-the-job training scheme aimed at exposing accountants to new techniques adopted in modern office environments.
This study is therefore set out to ascertain the extent to which the school management has provided resources for teaching of accounting in College of Education, Ikere – Ekiti.
Statement of the Problem
It appears teaching and learning resources/materials have a positive influence on the teaching and learning of any subject. It is therefore important for teachers to become familiar with the various types of instructional materials as well as the values that can be derived from their proper use. Despite the enormous importance of teaching and learning resources on academic performance of students in teaching and learning process, in Nigeria it appears that most schools have limited or no teaching and learning resources/materials. In some cases most teachers also face difficulties in handling some of the teaching and learning resources/materials and the improper handling of teaching and learning resources/materials can negatively influence academic performance of students in any subject.
This study was designed to appraise the availability of resources for teaching and learning of accounting University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Ikere Campus. In specific terms, the study was set out to ascertain the adequacy of the resources such as fund, personnel, physical facilities for effective teaching and learning of accounting particularly in University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Ikere Campus.
- How available and adequate are the materials employed in the teaching and learning of accounting in University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Ikere Campus?
- What is the state of adequacy of personnel in terms of number and quality responsible for the teaching and learning of accounting in University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Ikere Campus?
- What are the effects of the state of teaching personnel, methods and techniques on the teaching and learning of accounting?
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