Background of the Study
Most teachers leave teacher training institutions with limited knowledge of ways technology can be effectively used in their professional practice. In this age of digitization, being able to effectively apply technology should be high on the list of what teachers at all levels of our education should know and be able to teach with the use of instructional materials. There is substantial evidence that, if used appropriately for specific purposes in specific contexts, technology can be an effective tool in supporting teaching and learning. The way Information communication Technology (ICT) has been used in the education can be divided into two broad categories 1) ICT for Education and (2) ICT in Education. ICT for education refers to the development of information and communication technology specifically for teaching/ learning purposes, while ICT in Education involves the adoption of general components of technologies in teaching and learning process, more specifically, often for the training of teachers in the use of technology for teaching (Olakulehin, 2007). Similarly, UNESCO (2004) classifies ICT in education into three broad categories: (1) pedagogy (2) training, and (3) continue education. Pedagogy is focused on the effective learning of subjects with the support of the various components of ICT. Olakulehin (2007) emphasizes that the pedagogic application of ICT involves effective learning with the aid of computers and other information technologies as learning aids, which play complementary roles in the classroom, rather than supplementing the teacher.
Training is the transfer of knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) through structured learning and follow-up activities to solve job performance problems. Advance in science and technology creates the need for ICT training for teachers in secondary schools. Each of the major technological advancements in computer produces a whole generation of computers. This means new training for all people who use the computer. It has been observed that after teachers had attended professional development courses in ICT, yet they did not know how to use ICT in their classrooms, instead they just know how to run a computer and set up a printer. Bello (2000), argued that if teachers are to be convinced of the value of using ICT in their training, their training should focus on the pedagogical issues. Providing pedagogical training for teachers rather than simply training them to use ICT tools, is an important issue (Joseph, 2004). It is clear from these points that ICT can help teachers to teach and students to learn more effectively.
Many researchers have been devoted to ICT to understand the factors that can influence learning such as the multimedia effect – in which students learn more deeply from words and pictures than from words alone, the coherence effect in which students learn more deeply when extraneous material is excluded rather than included, the spatial contiguity effect – in which students learn more deeply when printed words are placed near than rather than far from corresponding pictures and the personalization effect – in which students learn more deeply when words are presented in conversational rather than formal style (Mayer, 2011). Relations with modelling have been largely explorer so are the benefit of exploring the possibilities of multiple representations (Kozma & Roussel, 2007). The way technology can augment the cognitive and social processes of scientific understanding and learning has been largely commented (Kozma 2010). The use of surface features has been positively and negatively described. It may shape the students’ understanding and are profitable (Kozma,2010), or be used with no understanding and lead students to copy and paste information with low learning.
Statement of the Problem
Information Communication Technology (ICT) relevance and positive effects as instructional resource for the teaching and learning of Social Studies in secondary schools in Ekiti State is a noticeable improvement among the various institutions and academic output. It is noted that uses of ICT equipment in teaching and learning of Social Studies in secondary schools does not only assist the teachers in carrying out their job effectively but also render qualitative service output to the entire academic community of the Nation.
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