Chapter one


1.1     Background of the Study

The world has witness in the past, two major socioeconomic revolutions: the agricultural revolution and the industrial revolution. Presently, there is another socio-economic shift, which is the arrival of computer is being witnessed. This stage of revolution in the society emphasized the production, storage and distribution of information in various forms.

Computer can be seen as an electronic device or machine that is capable of accepting inputs or data through input devices. Processes the input and generates appropriate results which are displayed through the output devices. Computer is an electronic machine used to record, store process and recall data or information.

Computer is a fast and accurate electronic machine, which is capable of accepting data as input, process data and process outputs under the influence of a stored program or instruction. Computer education can be seen as learning experiences with computer for the aim of achieving the set objectives of computer education (Nwaibe 1994) consequently. Computer education is aimed at making the learner computer literate.

In Ekiti State, computer education is a welcomed development whereby the teaching of computer is being administered to all students regardless of the class they belong to in secondary schools but the problems faced here is that, they don’t have all the necessary requirement needed for effective and successful teaching and learning of computer. This requirement includes: computer laboratories and libraries, enough computer systems, electric supply and instructional materials for computer education.

Education is the primary agent of transformation towards sustainable development. It increases peoples capacities to transform their visions for society into reality.

All the countries strive for quality education for their sustainable development. At any education level, the quality of education depends upon several factors such as: school facilities, teacher’s qualifications, traders’ motivation, management and administration, etc. in other words, a quality school is a school where pupils respect their peers, their teachers and their school management. Have a voice in decision-making, are interest and engage in their learning; accept responsibility; receive feedback and encouragement from their teachers and feel valued. In addition, teachers work together and share ideals, feel values and are given support to be immovable, employ teaching strategies that are varied and personalized to meet the needs of all learners. Other are that administrative and support staff word as valued partners with principals and teachers to ensure that students are supported in their learning and that school systems work effectively to support teaching and learning.

The school as a whole is committed to continuous improvement and forms learning partnership within and beyond the school. It develops plans and targets that address its goals, seeks feedback on its performance, uses data to reflect on its outcomes, reports openly and honestly and celebrate its achievement. It is known that an individual’s quality of life and the well being of the society depend on the quality of education. Pupil’s performance in primary leaving examination will greatly depend on the quality of education that pupils have gained in school.

Instructional materials are those materials that are being used by teachers to facilitate teaching and learning process. Some of these instructional materials are: print and non print materials. Print materials are any written materials that can aid the teacher in teaching: a typical example is a textbook. Non-print materials are those materials that the students can see: it includes pictures and posters chalkboard, and the  use of computers. In computer education, instructional materials are used by learner in teaching and learning process to bring novelty to the lesson by making to topics being taught interesting. In Ekiti State, the instructional materials are not readily available at the reach of the teachers, there by not making the teachers knowledgeable and resourceful enough to teach. Thus, arise, the need for improvisation. Improvisation is an act of using alternative materials locally made by the teacher, students or educational agency in a state of emergency as a substitute and supplement of standard equipment.

Improvisation in science teaching refers to the act of using alternative materials and resources to facilitate instruction whenever there is lack of shortage of some specific first hand teaching aids.

Basically, the computer system is made up of two main components namely hardware component, software components are basic computer accessories. The hardware component refer to the physical part of the computer that can be seen and touched which includes the input and output devices. Example include; monitor, keyboard, central processing unit (cpu), mouse, printer, scanner and diskette (Ezdiora, 2000). The software component is a step by step instruction given to a computer in order to perform a specific task. Examples are programs and application package (Alo, 2006). Computer accessories are other equipment attached to the computer system to enable it carry out its task effectively (Ogeh, 2007). Example includes batteries, cables and connectors, cleansing suppliers, keyboard drivers, monitor stand, power cord, uninterrupted power supply, mouse pad.

In computer education, both the hardware, software and basic computer accessories can be improved. (Igwe, 2005). The teacher should look for resources or materials beyond the classroom, for sole reliance on the inadequate instructional materials of the school will create undesirable class participation. According to Igwe (2005). The following component can be improvised for effective computer education in our schools.

Monitor: a monitor can be substituted using a carton squared shaped with the face of the carton covered with nylon materials to represent the screen of the monitor.

Keyboard: the keyboard can be substituted using carton, plywood, foam, small squared piece of carton sheet or cardboard paper to produce improvised keyboards. A foam is placed on a rectangle shaped plywood and the cut a cardboard sheet into squared small shaped to put them on the from each carrying numbers, alphabets and function to press to give input.

          Printer:  It can be substituted with the use of plywood or carton to produce a look alike with a standard printer.

Charts: this can be improvised by drawing on the chalkboard or on a cardboard sheet with the aid of using the pencil or master to make the drawing of the components of computer clearer to the students. All the components of computer can be draw on the chalk or blackboard to enhance better understanding of the concepts in computers in computer education to the students as well as improve their performance in computer examinations.

Judging, from the above improvisation act, we can conclude that lack of standard equipment is no excuse for not providing a suitable learning environment for computer education. The present researcher is not aware of any study concerned with the extent of improvisation of instructional materials for computer education in Ikere Ekiti local government area secondary school. Hence the need for the present study.

  • Statement of the Problem

It’s observed that classroom for the junior secondary classes are highly populated, moreso one (1) computer system was provided by the school to undergo the teaching and learning process of computer. Consequently, student’s performance in their previous years exams was very poor. This is in line with Igwe (1995) when he said that computer education cannot be effectively taught and learnt without the use of relevant instructional materials. The teaching task experience by teachers is very tedious and enormous so as to ensure that each student have experienced of computer in order for the specific objective to be achieved.

Thus: it is in the realization of these problems above that prompt me in this research “Teaching and learning of student in junior secondary school? Effect of improvised instructional materials in teaching of computer science. A case study of Ikere local government Ekiti State”.

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Updated: 28th August 2017 — 8:59 pm