Background of the Study
Across the world, education is a vital process in human development and environmental management. Education is a process of refining and preserving the collective values embedded in the culture of the society (Oyekan, 2010). By education, a network of worthwhile knowledge, skills and habits is passed on from one generation to the other for effective citizenship and collective benefits of the society. Education is a cooperative teaching-learning process of preparing an individual from birth and all through his/her life for happy useful living in the society within the culture and resources (Oyekan, 2010). It then follows that education is a social service which ensures refinement of human behaviour in terms of his/her processes of reasoning, feeling and doing things in a happy expectancy. While education is a cooperative teaching learning for effective citizenship and collective benefit of society, secondary school is a link between primary and tertiary institution where adequate knowledge for effective citizenship and collective benefits of society is achieved. A teacher is the bridge that makes teaching and learning effective. The teacher is thus the builder whose performance depends on adequate qualification, experience and preparation. This adequate knowledge and experience could be attained or achieved by acquiring additional knowledge that will stimulate his/her communication in teaching for efficiency (Oyedeji, 2010). That is, the qualification and experience of a teacher enhance or determine his/her performance. It could also be noted that the level and quality of education attained by the teacher determines the characteristics exhibited vis-à-vis the performance of the students
Education is often conceived as a systematic action of imparting relevant knowledge, skills and habits to the learners in their preparation for meaningful life and contribution to better society (Oloyede, 2006). This action is however, usually delivered through skillful exposure to a number of academic disciplines. Teaching according to Oyekan (2010) is a continuous human activity by which the teacher connects the learners and the subject matter drawn from school curriculum. It is the cardinal duty of the teacher to help the students to learn, understand and achieve beyond their current educational status and to effectively discharge the required responsibility. It is therefore imperative for the teacher to also develop beyond their current educational status for job efficiency and proficiency. It should be appreciated that teachers are the light of the world that brightens and nurtures the vibrant lives of individuals with useful knowledge, practical skill, and proper value orientation. In a modern society, educational institutions exercise considerable influence on the socialization of the child, a process in which the teacher plays crucial part (Agbatogun, 2010). Teachers’ educational development is therefore essential in playing the crucial part.
Studies have revealed that poor quality of teachers is a strong factor responsible for the dwindling standard of education in Nigeria. Research also indicates that the achievement gap widens each year between students with most effective teachers and those with least effective teachers. This implies that the most significant gains in student achievement will likely be realized when students receive instruction from well qualified and experienced teachers over consecutive years. Although teachers’ academic degrees and their average years of experience have been traditional indicators of the qualification of the teacher’s work force, research has not found the highest degree attained by teachers to be a good predictor of gains in students’ academic achievement (Hanushek, 1997).
Number of years of teaching experience has also proven to be problematic in predicting such gains. Generally, beginning teachers (three or less years of teaching experience) are not as effective as teachers with more years of teaching experience, with brand-new teachers typically being the least effective teachers (Rivkin and Kain, 2013). Research has consistently found out that brand-new teachers make important gains in teaching quality in the first year and smaller gains over the next few career years. However, there is no consistent linear relationship between years of experience and students achievement after the initial three years of teaching, making it difficult to say whether there are any discernible difference among more veteran teachers for example between teachers with 7-10 years of experience (Rivkin and Kain, 2013).
The teaching of business education in secondary schools today is not encouraging as there are insufficient qualified teachers, lack of teaching facilities, textbooks and workshops. Besides, period allocations for the teaching of the subjects as a teaching unit are hardly enough to cover the scheme within the specified period.
Yet schools continue to produce students who pass through the teaching of business education as a subject without the requisite acquisition of skills.
Business education at the secondary school level is regarded as business studies. The J.S.S business study is a single subject, which comprises five integral areas of commence, bookkeeping/accounting, office practice, shorthand and typewriting. Business studies at the senior secondary school comprise five separate subjects which are economics, commerce, bookkeeping/accounting, shorthand, and typewriting. Students should be equipped with the appropriate skills in each of the units in business education after graduation from the school systems. Only then can one conclude that the objectives of teaching these subjects in secondary school have been achieved.
It is, therefore, necessary to find out the present teaching situation and the status of business education to know whether it is capable of achieving the objectives for which it was established. This study is titled Teachers Characteristics and Achievement as Determinants of senior secondary schools students performance in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State. This will study the event that occur such as the rate of students failure in Business study in the senior secondary school(SSS), stakeholders blamed students who are not ready to learn as one of the causes of their failure. Also, teacher can be blame as a result of their attitude to work which affect the academic performance of students.
Adesina (2000), also revealed that teachers are the primary indicator and determinant of the quality of education. Thus, the ability to teach effectively depends on the knowledge of teachers and knowledge that exists in many forms.
Teacher must thoroughly understand the content of what they teach. Teachers who master the material will pass a language more clearly and provide better explanations than those with weaker backgrounds. Perspective of students to teachers in this mastery of the material have a significant influence on students academic performance.
According to Eggen and Kaunchk (2011), positive attitudes of teachers is essential for effective learning. Fisher et al (2010) stated that the study that the high level of learning that will takes place on learners when they are happy going themselves and the material being studies when teacher use instructional time effectively. Ways to deal with student-teacher affect student’s attitudes towards school and academic performance of students. How students perceptions of their teachers attitudes while teaching in the classroom be measured in this study are qualifications, Experience and teaching skills.
Ehindero and Ajibade (2010) asserts that students are stakeholders in education, and has been suspected and speculated that some of their teachers do not have the necessary professionals qualifications. In a sense, skills, techniques, strategies are needed to convey concepts, ideas, principles are a means to facilitate effective learning.
Obanyan (2008) says that teachers are considered instrumental to translate content standards into the subject matter in the classroom, the teacher remain a constant factor in the successful implementation of educational programs.
Ajayi(2006) found that the classroom teacher is one of the major determinants of students achievement, training is most important as a determinant of students academic performance.
On the contrary, Husen (2005) reported that increased in-service is accompanied by low achievement levels by students especially where the training is assumed to be for only teachers of low scoring students.
Researchers agree that teaching experience is positively correlated with higher students’ achievement even though finding about its meaning varies. For instance, some studies found that years of teaching experience are a consistent predictors of higher test scores, other documents revealed a negative effect, when a high proportion of non-experienced teachers are present in a school in terms of higher dropout rates and lower students achievement score (Agbatogun, 2010). Some research studies suggest that effect of teacher experience is small relative to the effect of other desirable teachers’ characteristics such as teachers’ content knowledge, and overall academic ability (Agbatogun, 2010).
In view of the foregoing, this study therefore was set out to investigate teachers characteristics and achievement as determinants of senior secondary school students’ performance level in Business study.
Statement of the Study
A common observation of the school system in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria would show a large number of young teachers with few years of teaching specialization. Many of these teachers seem to lack the much needed experience and adequate qualification that could bring about effective teaching and learning of business study in secondary schools in terms of teaching methodology (Ekiti State Ministry of Education, 2002). Hence teaching tends to be done in abstract while learning is perhaps by rote memory. The issue of whether or not a relationship existed between teachers’ teaching experience and qualification and students’ learning outcomes in senior secondary schools in Ikere Local Government area of Ekiti State, Nigeria constituted the problem of this study.
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which teachers characteristics and achievement determines students performance in business study in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria. Since the quality and quantity output of the educational system depend on the teachers’ input into the system, the study therefore intends to use its findings to make useful recommendation for the accomplishment of secondary school goal. Specifically the study seeks to:
- Find out the relevant traits in teachers that could positively influence the students’ academic performance in secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State
- Investigate the composite and relative contributions of teachers’ behavioural traits such as teaching process and teaching attitude etc. to students’ academic performance in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
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