1.1 Background of the Study
Computer science is the scientific and practical approach to computation and its applications. It is the systematic study of the feasibility, structure, expression, and mechanization of the methodical procedures (or algorithms) that underlie the acquisition, representation, processing, storage, communication of, and access to information. An alternate, more succinct definition of computer science is the study of automating algorithmic processes that scale.
Adesina (2000), also revealed that teachers are the primary indicator and determinant of the quality of education. Thus, the ability to teach effectively depends on the knowledge of teachers and knowledge that exists in many forms.
Teacher must thoroughly understand the content of what they teach. Teachers who master the material will pass a language more clearly and provide better explanations that those with weaker backgrounds. Perspective of students to teachers in this mastery of the material have a significant influence on students academic performance.
According to Eggen and Kaunchk (2001), positive attitudes of teachers is essential for effective learning. Fisher et al (2000) stated that the study that the high level of learning that will takes place on learners when they are happy going themselves and the material being studies when teacher use instructional time effectively. Ways to deal with student-teacher affect student’s attitudes towards school and academic performance of students. How students perceptions of their teachers attitudes while teaching in the classroom be measured in this study are qualifications, experience and teaching skills.
Obanyan (2000) says that teacher are considered instrumental to translate content standards into the subject matter in the classroom, the teacher remain a constant factor in the successful implementation of educational programs.
Ajayi(2006) found that the classroom teacher is one of the major determinants of students achievement, training is most important as a determinant of students academic performance. On the contrary, Husen (2000) reported that increased in-service is accompanied by low achievement levels by students especially where the training is assumed to be for only teachers of low scoring students.
It is very important to look into teachers characteristics in student’s performance in Computer science. Computer science as a compulsory subject in the secondary school record poor performance of students.
Computer science is regarded as the key to all science and technology subject, without a good foundation in Computer science, student would not be able to do well in science and technology. It is very important to note that boys and girls in secondary school usually run away from computer classes without any regard for its being a compulsory subject.
Obi (2000) noted that for the effective teaching of computer science, the teacher must be well equipped with the idea of what he or she is going to teach in the classroom. Appropriate method of teaching is also required while supporting the fact that it is necessary to be knowledgeable about a particular concept, it is also necessary to know how to impact the knowledge adequately. The teacher must know the best techniques and method of presenting his/her ideas to his or her pupils, bearing in mind their interest, needs and individual differences.
Kolawole (2005) he Stated that creative teaching requires new materials and thoughtful activities such as learning single as learning skill, procedures analysis of problem and application of generalization.
Therefore, a good teacher must have a sound knowledge of the contents, method and above all good attitudes to work. Based on the general belief that computer science is regarded as the foundation of all science subjects there is need to handle its teaching effectively. He further observed that falling standing in performance of students in the secondary school could attribute to the teacher’s characteristics toward its effectively teaching.
Education is the primary agent of transformation towards sustainable development. It increases people’s capacities to transform their visions for society into reality. All countries strive for quality education for their sustainable development. The federal government of Nigeria had adopted education as an instrument per excellence for effecting national development. If education has be adopted as the only tool that can solve the socio-economic problems of Nigeria, then the adequate supply of effective teaching becomes the core of the educational and the quality of teachers.
This view is adequately reflected in the national policy on education in section 9.59 on the purpose of teacher education on that, teacher education will continue to be given a major emphasis in all educational planning because no education system can rise above the quality of its teachers.
National policy on n education which sees computer science as one of the “vehicles” of science and technology. This notion was stressed by Fakuade (2006) when opined that “it is a fortiori that excellence in the knowledge and use biology is an essential factors in the development programme of any nation of the world.
Even though biology is an elective subject, the standard of student performance in the subject have been on yearly decline. Many schools certificate student become victim of examination disappointment and academics frustration. This problem, no doubt, is a powerful factor against student career choice especially in a country that place great emphasis on paper qualification and certification.
In recent days, many attempts have been made to find out, why student fail computer science in their terminals examination. The failure of students in computer science in the secondary schools has reached an alarming proportion such that Ike (1977) while speaking on Quality of Education in our secondary schools” had to deplore the standard of the Education in counts. This he did while delivering a lecture to the annual conference of the principals of the secondary schools in the Nigeria (ANCOPSS).
Recently, there was lack of science teacher in Ekiti state especially in computer science, there came also the needs for teachers to teach, but unfortunately the number of qualified teachers available were just not enough and this led to an influx of less qualified or non qualified teachers in schools to teach computer science Ojo (2009) therefore lamented over low employment of computer science teachers in secondary Education Grabble (2004) attributed the lack of effective teaching in schools to the shortage of qualified teachers, experience and over-loading the few qualified ones with volume of work. Though, Armstrong (1968) further stressed and cautioned that “study is hard work and before “the gate of academics excellence, higher goals have replaced sweat”, study may therefore be described as a determined purposeful pattern geared towards learning.
Many more factors apart from teachers’ qualification and the volume of work undertaken have been identified by researchers as the causes of the mass failure of student in computer science. For example oshiodu (2005), Adedeji (2001) opined some of the reasons attributed to low performance in computer science in secondary schools are the poor methodology by the teacher, poor study habits, home background, sex differences, facilities in the school, and a host of them.
Oliniyan(1980) described teachers as those who are academically and professionally well qualified. He believes that this type of teachers would deliver goods much better than “half baked “ and qualified people merely going by the name “teachers” and employed possibly because they could not get any other job.
Jack(1985) also agree that quality teachers play very important roles in realization of educational objectives. He believes that qualified teachers are needed to mobilize the students and materials in order to realize educational objective and enhance students “performance”.
Sikiru (2007) in his pre-election campaign speech to principles of public schools stated that teaching is not like inducing a chemical reaction rather, it is like painting a picture, acting a play or making a piece of music it demand a great amount of this detention and personal involvement, which is very common, unfortunately, in most cases teaching is in the hands of many who have not the self-devotion attachment and even qualification; training and retraining is the goal of this team”. It therefore becomes necessary if education is to be maintained highly at all level, that a uniform basic entry qualification should be adopted in all aspect of education.
This is the opinion of the chairman national basic education commission at the inauguration of the national institute programme of retaining the teachers to meet the effective teaching in June 2006, he furthered stated that the policy statement on education (2003) is necessary so as to have the lowest qualification one most attain before teaching in any educational institution which is the national certificate of education (N.C.E) this should afford the teacher to be acquainted with modern teaching techniques aid curriculum.
Oyebode (2007) in his own contribution wants the government to train and retrain those who are faced with challenges of man power shall be met, the government of the Federal Republic of Nigeria in 1981 adopted. Education as an instrument for effecting national development.
Adeogun (2001), found that the quality of any education system depends on the quality of teachers. related literature indicates that the most important school‐based determining factor of students achievement is the teacher quality (Harris and Sass, 2008). Therefore, there is need to assess the characteristics of the secondary school teachers in terms of qualification, experience and teaching methodology in order to ensure quality of education given to the youths. The teachers of SMT should be in-serviced where gaps are identified to enable them to cope with the requirements of the dynamic school curriculum (Murunga et al., 2013).
Usman 2012, a qualified teacher can be defined as one who holds a teaching certificate and/or licensed by the state, owns at least a bachelor’s degree from a four-year institution and well qualified in his/her area of specialization. Moreover, Usman quotes the Pakistan Ministry of Education officials who described a qualified teacher as one who possesses knowledge of: the subject matter, human growth and development, ethical values, instructional planning and strategies, assessment, learning environment, communication and advocacy, collaboration and partnership, continuous professional development, code of conduct and skillful use of information communication technologies. The educators, government, parents and society in general have constantly been interested in the academic achievement of students.Yusuf and Adigun, 2010.
Adeyemi 2010, teachers play an important role in determining the students‟ academic achievement. Researchers have never reached a consensus on the specific teacher factors that influence students‟ academic achievement. Rivkin et al., 2005. Some studies found that teachers’ experience and educational qualifications significantly influenced students’ academic achievement (Olaleye, 2011). When conducting research on factors contributing to under achievement of Zambian female students in O Level Computer science examinations, Maguswi (2011) found that lack of qualified teachers of computer science had a significant contribution.
The importance of qualified and specialized teachers in schools has been highlighted by many researchers (Commeyras, 2003). Researchers have also given different opinions about teachers teaching experience and qualification on students’ learning outcomes in schools (Akomolafe, 2001). Their arguments centred on the fact that teachers qualification and specialization improves teaching skills while pupils learn better at the hands of teachers who have taught them continuously over a period of years (Ijaiya, 2000). In investigating possible differences in teaching strategies, Schuler (1984) grouped teachers into three levels of teaching experience (3 – 6; 7 – 10 and more than 10 years). His findings revealed that teachers’ experience and qualification perception of their teaching objectives was significantly more subject-oriented than was that of first-year teachers. Hence, effective teaching could be measured by the level of a teacher’s subject matter competence which Mullens (1993) regarded as a prime predictor of student’s learning. However, teachers’ theories about teaching are being guided by their previous experience as learners and as teachers (Waiching, 1994). The importance of teachers experience and qualification in schools has been argued as being necessary for school effectiveness (Zaku, 1983). This suggests that many experienced and qualified teachers might have left the school system probably as a result of better job prospects in other sectors of the economy.
However, the desire by government to engage more teachers of long years standing is perhaps hampered by the high cost of education. Hence, Adeyemi (1998) exclaimed that the more experienced teachers in a school system, the higher would be the recurrent cost of education. As such, Charles (2002) suggested the need to involve retired teachers because of their long years of teaching experience to teach in Nigerian schools. In terms of students’ learning outcomes, Blaug (1970) argued that there are positive associations between personal earnings and schooling. He reported that the extension of education tends to raise the earnings of those who benefited from it (Blaug, 1983). Schultz (1963) classified the outcomes of education into two categories from the economic point of view. These are consumption and investment. Cohn (1975) referred to the consumption aspect as that related to the benefits derived by students, their families and the society as a whole. He regarded the investment component as including a variety of outputs related to the enhancement of an individual’s or society’s productive skills and future well being. In this regard, Simkins (1981) reported that output represents the immediate results of the system’s activities. According to him, the main outputs in education are expressed in terms of learning, that is, changes in the knowledge, skills and attitudes of individuals as a result of their experiences. Tsang (2008) supported this view and regarded inputs to education as the various ingredients used in producing outputs. He remarked that the output of education consists of educational effects such as cognitive and noncognitive skills that are learned by students. Hence, Sheehan (2003) remarked that education yields benefits which are ‘consumed’ over a long period (the life-time of the educated person). As such, education is an end in itself irrespective of any future benefits. Lord (2004) supported these views and enumerated four major areas of measuring output in education. These include the assessment by the teacher; standard examinations as a measure of educational output; other standardised tests for national and local monitoring and market research techniques. In recognition of this, Thias and Carnoy (2002) examined the influence of school factors on the quality of schools’ output in Kenya. According to them “the quality of output is equated with students’ examination performance.” They argued that if the average examination performance in one school is higher than in another, the quality of output of the first is considered to be higher than that of the second. Akangbou (2005) too, calculated the ‘academic index’ of output in Nigeria and remarked that the simplest measure of output of the Nigerian secondary education system is the number of school leavers.
In measuring teachers’ effectiveness, Stiggins and Duke (2000) suggested three parallel evaluation systems.These include an induction system for novice teachers with a focus on meeting performance standards; a remediation system for experienced teachers in need of remediation to correct deficiencies in performance and a professional development system for competent, experienced teachers pursuing excellence in particular areas of teaching. Notwithstanding, Medley and Shannon (2004) expressed doubts about using measures of student achievement to judge teacher effectiveness while (Darling-Hammond et al, 2005) found certain deficiencies in the attempts to obtain performance measures of teachers. These deficiencies include the fact that the assessment systems do not evaluate candidates in similar job settings and performance situations. Considering the foregoing, the objective of this study was to examine teachers’ teaching experience in secondary schools in Ikere local government area of Ekiti state, Nigeria and determine whether teachers teaching experience and qualification had any relationship with students’ learning outcomes.
There are hues and cries among stakeholders in education over the growing rate of failure and subsequent drop-out in the Nigeria secondary schools in recent times. The growing failure rate could be noticed in the yearly decline in students’ performance in the Senior School Certificate (SSCE). Stakeholders in education blamed students for general unpreparedness to study as one of the major causes of students’ failure. Teachers were also blamed for lack of dedication to their jobs which has inadvertently affected the academic performance of student. Whoever to be blamed, the general view is that high quality teachers are education’s best resources and assets (Ayodele 2004).
Adeogun (2001) opined that the quality of the educational system depends on the quality of its teaching staff and that a school without human resources may not to be able to achieve the goal and objectives of the educational system. Adesina (2000) also noted that teachers are the major indicator and determinant of quality education. Highly professional teachers, who are dedicated are needed in schools. It has been established that there is high correlation between what teachers know and what they teach. Thus the ability to teach effectively depends on the teachers knowledge and knowledge occurs in a variety of forms. Teacher effectiveness is impeded if the teacher is unfamiliar with the body of knowledge taught and the teachers’ effectiveness is subject specific. The implication of this for teachers is that they must thoroughly understand the content of what they teach. The teacher whose understanding of topic is thorough use clearer language and they provide better explanation than those whose background is weaker. The way the students perceive the teachers in terms of their (teachers) knowledge of content of subject matter may significantly affect the students academic performance.
A non-challant attitude of some teachers to work, has been attributed to poor academic performance of students. According to Eggen and Kauchak (2001), positive teachers attitude are fundamental to effective teaching. They identified a number of teachers attitude that will facilitate a caring and supportive classroom environment, they are: enthusiasm, caring, firm, democratic practices to promote students responsibility, use time for lesson effectively, have established efficient routines, and interact freely with students and providing motivation for them. Fisher et al (1980) also noted that high level of learning occur and learners feel good about themselves and the materials they are learning when teachers use instructional time efficiently. The way teachers outreach with students influences their attitude toward school and their academic performance. How students perceive their teacher attitudes to teaching in the classroom will be measured in this study Qualification, Teaching experience and Teaching skills are variables noted to have effect on student academic performances.
Ehindero and Ajibade (2000) asserted that “students, who are curious stakeholders in educational enterprise, have long suspected and speculated that some of their teachers lack the necessary professional qualifications. That is, skills, techniques, strategies required to communicate concepts, ideas, principles in a way that would facilitate effective learning.” They believed that these deficiencies contribute significantly to the growing rate of failure and subsequent drop out of students in secondary institutions. These observations by stakeholders necessitate the need to investigate the effects of teachers characteristics such as professional qualification, teaching skill and techniques necessary for teaching and learning in secondary schools on academic performance of students
Adeogun (2001) found that the quality of the education system depends on the quality of teachers and a school without resources it is impossible to achieve the goals and objectives of the education system. Adesina (1980), also revealed that teachers are the primary indicator and determinant of the quality of education. Teachers are very professional, dedicated needed in schools. It is known that there is a relationship between teachers’ knowledge of what they teach. Thus, the ability to teach effectively depends on the knowledge of teachers and knowledge that exists in many forms. Teacher effectiveness will be hampered if the teachers are not familiar with the body of knowledge that is taught and teacher effectiveness is specific. The implication of this for teachers is that teachers must thoroughly understand the content of what they teach. Teachers who master the material will pass a language more clearly and provide better explanations than those with weaker backgrounds. Perspective of students to teachers in this mastery of the material have a significant influence on students’ academic performance.
According to Eggen and Kaunchak (2001), positive attitudes of teachers is essential for effective learning. Fisher et al (1980) stated that the high level of learning that will take place on learners when they are happy going themselves and the material being studied when teachers use instructional time effectively. Ways to deal with student teachers affect students’ attitudes toward school and academic performance of students. How can students ‘perceptions of their teachers’ attitudes while teaching in the classroom will be measured in this study. Qualifications, Experience and Skills Teaching Teaching is a registered variable has an effect on students’ academic performance.
Ehindro and Ajibade (2000) asserts that students are stakeholders in education, and has been suspected and speculated about some of their teachers do not have the necessary professional qualifications. In a sense, skills, techniques, strategies are needed to convey concepts, ideas, principles are a means to facilitate effective learning. They assume that these deficiencies contributed significantly to growth failure and drop-out students in middle school.
According to Usman (2012), a qualified teacher can be defined as one who holds a teaching certificate and/or licensed by the state, owns at least a bachelor’s degree institution and well qualified in his/her area of specialization. Moreover, Usman quotes the Nigeria Ministry of Education officials who described a qualified teacher as one who possesses knowledge of: the subject matter, human growth and development, ethical values, instructional planning and strategies, assessment, learning environment, communication and advocacy, collaboration and partnership, continuous professional development, code of conduct and skillful use of information communication technologies. The educators, government, parents and society in general have constantly been interested in the academic achievement of students (Lydiah and Nasongo, 2009; Yusuf and Adigun, 2010).
1.2 Statement of the problem
A common observation of the school system in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria would show a large number of young teachers with few years of teaching specialization. Many of these teachers seem to lack the much needed experience and adequate qualification that could bring about effective teaching and learning in schools in terms of teaching methodology (Ekiti State Ministry of Education, 2002). Hence teaching tends to be done in abstract while learning is perhaps by rote memory. The issue of whether or not a relationship existed between teachers’ teaching experience and qualification and students’ learning outcomes in schools in Ikere Local Government area of Ekiti State, Nigeria constituted the problem of this study.
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