Background of the Study
Of central importance in a social work, practicum is the ongoing evaluation of the student’s performance. The term evaluation means to examine, judge, appraise, and assign value or worth. The word performance refers to the actions of carrying out or completing some function, role, or obligation. Thus, the social work practicum evaluation focuses on the student’s behaviors and actions related to the role and obligations of a professional social worker. The primary question addressed is whether the students’ performance is meeting the specified standards expected of the social work practitioner at their level of practice. Ahmed, (2000).
Every program of social work education uses some type of rating scale or evaluation tool to monitor and evaluate student progress. The evaluation process compares the student’s performance to established standards and criteria and also to the learning objectives, and strategies outlined in the student’s learning contract.
Evaluations of student performance are of two types: formal and informal. An informal evaluation consists of the ongoing feedback and suggestions offered by the practicum instructor. This type of evaluation takes place on a weekly or even a daily basis. A formal evaluation is a detailed review and comparison of the student’s performance with evaluation criteria, standards, and learning objectives for the practicum. It occurs at the end of each academic term or more often, depending on school policy or special circumstances.
The findings or the results of the formal evaluation are placed in a written report. This report typically consists of the ratings assigned to the various items on the school’s evaluation tool and a few paragraphs of narrative that describe special strengths and abilities and/or special problems and deficiencies in performance. The report may also describe how needed learning experiences will be secured or deficiencies corrected prior to the next formal evaluation.
The areas addressed in the practicum evaluation are similar to those addressed in the performance evaluation of the social workers employed by an agency. In order to ensure high-quality performance and reduce their exposure to lawsuits and employee grievances, agencies strive to make their expectations of employees as clear as possible and to use personnel evaluation tools (i.e., rating scales) that are as objective as possible. These same forces have prompted programs of social work education to develop evaluation tools that are as valid and reliable as possible.
However, it must be recognized that it is difficult to develop an evaluation tool that is both clear and specific in its descriptions of standards and criteria, and also flexible enough to accurately and fairly evaluate the practice of social work, which is complex and difficult to observe directly. An evaluation should be objective to the degree possible, but even a well-designed procedure will require judgments by the practicum instructor, and some of these may be open to charges of subjectivity.
There are several theories on how the concept of performance measurement appeared. Morgan (2004) believes that modern performance measurement appeared in Venice in the fifteenth century, with the appearance of the double entry accounting. Another view is that of the authors Johnson and Kaplan (1987) that consider that performance measurement appeared during the industrial revolution. Either way we can say with fair certainty that performance management has emerged as the dominant research area in the early ’50s, when academics and practitioners have become interested in the need to measure performance and measurement consequences (Argyris, 1952).
Interest in management and performance measurement has increased considerably in the last 20 years (Taticchi, 2008). Number of publications on this topic has grown significantly over the last decade (Beamon 1999, Lohman et al. 2004, Gunasekaran et al. 2004). We believe that this is mainly due to a fundamental change in business. Furthermore, performance is not a subject easily addressed. It is clear the need to study and rethink the concept and, in this context, to rethink how performance measurement it is done.
According to Atkinson et al. (1997) performance measurement should help the economic entity
to understand and assess the value received from suppliers and employees, the value provided by
the stakeholders and the effectiveness of processes implemented in the economic entity and its
strategic properties. Therefore, we can say that performance measurement plays the role of
coordination, monitoring and diagnosis of economic entity’s activities.
Over the past three years planners have paid much attention to the question of what should be taught in schools. What sort of instructional or study materials should be prepared for students and by whom? What type of learning activities should contending out by the students? In short, much concern has been devoted to decision related to the school curriculum.
Universities here introduced graduates and post graduate in curriculum planning and professional journals dealing with these topics have been launched. The term curriculum had been sued in a variety of ways to designate a programmes a given subject matter at a specific grade level. In most cases a curriculum did not contain more than a brief list of education objectives and contents to be taught in schools. In the recent years, however, the meaning of the term has been broadened to encompass, detailed plans students activities.
A variety of study materials suggestions arrangements for butting the programmes into use etc. Balogun 1981 et al perceived curriculum as a written statement of the educational experiences which the school proposes to provide or create for children and the aims, materials and procedures of such experiences.
According to Key (1968), a curriculum means all the learning planned and guided by the school. This definition takes place in the school. For example, the Bi – annual NATCEGA in which College participate, whether the institution is the host or not in part of the guided programme by the school on the other hand, Onyika (1980) defined curriculum as an educational programme of experiences offered to the learner under the guidance of the school in order to effect certain change in his behaviour.
As educational programme like any activity depends on proper planning for its success. Teachers need to establish very clearly what they are typing to achieve with their pupils, then the derive how they have been in their attempts.
This process of planning, learning opportunities intended to bring about certain changes in which these changes have taken places is what referred to as educational literature as curriculum development is Onwuka (1981) says curriculum of education consists of all the situations that the school may select and consistently organize for the purpose of bringing about changes in developing personality of the individuals. Through the above definitions of curriculum, we shall see that it is a way of preparing the child for educational activities and guide him in the school or outside school so that desirable behavioural changes can take place in him.
The Business has been variously defined by different authors. Business can be defined as the human activity of converting resources into goods and services for the purpose of bringing about transactions that will result in a profit to the organization. However, Business deals with various method of conducting activities aims of Business activity is to maximize the utility that will derived from consuming a particular good or product so as to satisfy the needs of such consumer. The development may lead to helping pupils to achieve a work. When living, and which will also provide students with the understanding and knowledge needed for the heading of personal affairs and using the services for the business society.
In other words, business education deals with relationship method and techniques attitudes and skill facilitating an individual to understand the social institution of business and the environment where it is operated. It uncovers business experience in too dimensions i.e. specialized and general occupation form the observation from the Olaleye (1985) Business education came into existence as an after mail of the out break of the second world war. The ideas of using machines to write words were being introduce to people most especially in the foreign countries when these set of people come back to Nigeria, their Colonial masters brought some of the machines to be used in Government offices, the service men, who returned from the war front were being employed to work as clerk. Students enrolled in Business schools are categorized into sex major group based on their motivations as follows some that are unable to complete secondary school education as a result of their inability i.e. those that are disabled physically.
Another category are those who wanted only industrial training without having to pass through secondary school. Next are those who wanted to complete their training in the commercial subjects. Another set of people or other of students who had been prosperously employed are already in employment, who deserve to be retained to develop their skills. In order to spread the lenticels of the educational policy the national policy on education based on the recommendation of Adebo Cements was reviewed and printed in 1977 was revised in 1981 and it is now christened the national policy on education in which is conglomerates of subjects such as office practice, Typing, Shorthand business method would be taught as a prevocational subject in the Junior Secondary J.S.S.S level.
It is a fact that the success of any educational programme depends to a very large extent on the teacher. The teacher also needs to be qualified so as to teach as a professional not as an amateur.
In the execution of any curriculum content as Balogun D.A. (1981) observed the teachers needs to understood clearly the objective of such a curriculum so to know the necessary steps to take in making the students pass through the course of study and advice the educational objectives. Also needs to be identified. This will help in knowing the extend or the rate at which to go on each topic. Teachers need to find out the necessary teaching or instructional materials needed to support the method of teaching adopted. This action if adhered to will make the teaching meaningful to the students and the knowledge gained by the students can be consolidated.
The teacher at the sometime takes into consideration the students level most especially on the entry behaviour or the previous knowledge of the students evaluation need to be made so as to know the teaching effectiveness and the appropriateness of the cumulative rewards of the students performance in series of achievement.
The school as a matter of fact, is a place set up by the society for teaching and learning purpose. In a nutshell, the school is set up for the penetration of the community. Since values, and coming generation. The school competes with other curriculum development participant for instance, where the school environment is not conducive for learning, students cannot gain thing.
Hence the school should be set up in a place that is devoid of any sort of noise or distraction, which constitutes ineffectiveness. The classroom should be well equipped with the necessary materials such as desks; chars, chalkboard, dusters and so on. The ventilation should also be okay. Bangge (1990) discovered that it is the role of the school to work in collaboration with the government, parents, teachers and others to provide the necessary instructional materials needed for the execution of the curriculum contents.
The school sis responsible for the supervision and inspection of teachers during the course of teaching to ensure that they do not deviate from the educational objectives of the school. Their works need to be evaluated so as to determine their success in their results in the school. Furthermore, the school also needs to liaise with the government to secure adequate number of qualified teacher to implement the curriculum.
At the sometimes, the school also has the role to go through the students evaluation records, judge teachers, effectiveness, assess the curriculum in general and supply the ministry of Education with findings to enable necessary adjustments be made in the curriculum. Students cumulative record when gone through can be analyzed and interpreted to the areas of needs of the students.
1Connely (1997), a teacher who encourages his class children with such remarks as “I expect better work from you, Daniel, “and “ This is what I would expect from you Susan” is unconsciously encouraging them, which indices them (the children) to develop favourable attitude towards the teacher’s subjects O’Connell further says that pupils thinking for school conditions their attitude towards certain school subjects.
Tenebaum (1998), discovered that a learner’s attitude, as expressed in the way he feels and thinks, he likes and dislikes – are a matter of concern to educators. Such learner’s attitudes are perhaps more important than the actual amount of mastery of subject matter. However, Tenebaum expresses his regret by saying that school systems have paid minor attention to the attitudes and emotions which inevitably arise as simultaneous products of the teaching process.
Burnham (2000), the condition which makes learning positive is largely a mental attitude of the learner. Horgan (2001), accepts this view as it stresses that desirable attitude of students’ quickens learning, while undesirable ones have a reverse effect.
Bills (2002:54), asserts that pupils with negative attitude towards a subject or teacher, do not lean with the same degree as with pupils with more positive attitudes. He is of the view that the importance a pupil attaches to a subject will determine the amount of efforts he/she will put into studying the subjects.
Tobias and Hamlow (2004) are of the view that positive attitudes towards an instructor has the effect of giving the students opportunity to take further course with the same teacher. Conversely, the students with negative attitudes are likely to avoid studying with the teacher in the future.
Puzzled about the student’s attitude towards business studies, Terry (1996), wrote;
Favourable attenuating efforts are normally obtained by treating employees as human beings, encouraging their growth desire to excel, recognising work well-done and ensuring fair play.
He assumes that the teacher should show positive attitude through creation of activities of interest in the classroom, encouraging the students, varying their methods and motivating the m generally.
Statement of the Problem
As we all know that the performance of the students in the higher institution today mainly, College of Education, Ikere – Ekiti state is the outcome of their performance in the secondary school, for this reason the purpose of this project research is to evaluate the students performance in selected Junior Secondary School Ekiti East Local Government Omuo – Ekiti and find out possible solution if there is any lacking things in the cause of carry out this research project.
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