Background of the Study
Computer studies is about how computers compute. It is not about learning how to use the computer, and it is much more than computer programming. Computer studies is the study of ways of representing objects and processes. It involves defining problems; analyzing problems; designing solutions; and developing, testing, and maintaining programs. For the purposes of this document, the term computer studies refers to the study of computer science, meaning computer and algorithmic processes, including their principles, their hardware and software designs, their applications, and their impact on society. The major focus of these courses is the development of programming skills, which are important for success in future postsecondary studies.
Computer studies is relevant for all students because it incorporates a broad range of transferable problem-solving skills and techniques, including logical thinking, creative design, synthesis, and evaluation. It also teaches generically useful skills in such areas as communication, time management, organization, and teamwork. Students live in a technologically rich world, and computer studies will provide them with the knowledge and skills to understand the underpinnings of current computer technology and prepare them for emerging technologies. A foundation in this discipline will introduce students to the excitement and opportunities afforded by this dynamic field and will begin to prepare them for a range of rewarding careers.
The computer studies program will build a strong foundation for those who wish to move on to further study and training in specialized areas such as computer programming, database analysis, computer science, education, computer engineering, software engineering, information technology, and game development.
Computers are rapidly becoming important components within societies’ and people’s lives globally (Coffin & MacIntyre, 1999). Thus, computer education has become a fundamental curriculum in schools and colleges worldwide. The fact that education plays a major role in the socioeconomic and technological development of any nation cannot be understated. This is because the development of any nation or community depends principally on the quality of education of such nation. It then becomes imperative that a society takes seriously the development of its human resources.
Then again, the academic performance of students impacts their future educational attainment as increase in income and social status is generally associated with increase in levels of education (Ross & Wu, 1995). This associated increase in socioeconomic status affects the students’ access to health care, lifestyle factors such as recreation and nutrition, work environment, and social psychological factors such as self-regard, emotional stability and assertiveness.
Academic performance has been described as the scholastic standing of a student at a given moment. This scholastic standing could be explained in terms of the grades obtained in a course or groups of courses (Daniels and Schoulen, 1970). Simkins (1981) commented on this scholastic standing and argued that performance is a measure of output and that the main outputs in education are expressed in terms of learning, that is, changes in knowledge, skills and attitudes of individuals as a result of their experiences within the school’s system. STAN, (1992) supported this argument and reported that performance is the level of attainment of a person in an examination, that is, how an individual is able to demonstrate his or her abilities in an examination. A student’s attitude towards a subject greatly influences performance. It affects the individual’s organized manner of thinking, feeling and reacting to a study subject (Evans, 1972). Hamachek (1971) observes that an individual’s attitude towards a subject will influence their self-concept of academic ability.
Learning has been so much associated with the school that some people almost think that
learning goes on only in schools. This view of learning has been greatly reinforced by such reference to schools as institutions of learning and to Universities, Polytechnics and College of Education as institutions of higher learning (Okoye, 1987). There is no doubting the fact that much learning goes on in school. The school is particularly and specifically arranged so as to facilitate effective learning. Unfortunately the poor condition of our schools, particularly the primary schools today in the nation raises a lot of anxiety. A cursory look at these school in spite of government efforts reveals schools dominated by dilapidated buildings, school void of good furniture and equipment, schools where instructional materials are either not provided or are inadequate; school that are under-staffed; schools, where teachers salaries and allowances are not promptly paid, schools that have not been inspected for the last 15 years; schools where there are no discipline among other things. The government, and especially the parents are very much concerned with the quality and volume of learning acquired by their children, wards and citizens as this is related to the quality and quantity of the contribution which the individual can make to his immediate family, community and the nation as a whole. (Thorndike, 1931).
Several studies by Sociologist, Psychologists and Educationists showed that the type of schools a learner attends has profound influence on his academic achievement. For instance, Bibby and Peil (1974) noted that children who attended private primary schools performed better than pupils in public schools. This view is also supported by Lioyd (1966) as he contended further that the public schools which saw education as good thing, tended to leave the question of educational success or failure in the hands of the public and their parents. This implies that the business of education is not taken with all the seriousness it demands in the public schools. This of course is what may be regarded as the general apathy of the citizenry to government’s owned business or property. A situation that has resulted in lackadaisical attitude of government’s workers, including teachers in the public schools tend to believe that an intelligent child would succeed automatically at school without any active assistance coming from them.
However, in the 1970’s Polytechnics/Colleges of Technology were established under various laws which recognize them as statutory bodies with autonomous status. The Institute of Management and Technology is not only a State owned Polytechnic but amongst the first generation of Polytechnics in Nigeria. It can be recalled that business education as a discipline was being offered in Ekiti State University of Science and Technology, Institute of Management and Technology whereas the creation of Ekiti State College of Education (Technical) has made the N.C.E programme to be transferred to it from Institute of Management and Technology, thereby relieving the Institute from offering any Nigeria Certificate in Education programme. It is important to understand computer as relates to its applications and purpose.
This is because before going into its influence or importance of business organizations as well as business education, we can look at computer as basically an electronic device that accepts data from an input device, performs some kind of manipulations on the data in accordance with pre defined instructions and transfers the manipulated or processed data to an output device for further process or in final printed form such as business document, schedules and management control report (Modum, 1995).
The manipulation in the above meaning of a computer implies calculations, comparison, and logical operations. Changes in computer technology are rapid and of great magnitude which indicated that large number of users is found in education, arts, science and engineering. Be it as it may, computer plays important roles in space travel, navigation, banking, traffic control, meteorology, power, medicine, air travel, industry, printing education, telephone and telex. It most be noted that an organization would use a computer only if by so doing it is more profitable (Carey,1995).
The development of internet technology avails an individual the opportunity to surf through the World Wide Web (www) with speed and ease, thereby communicating with others around the globe. Computers have found application in carrying out business in the private and public sectors especially in government agencies. Computer is profitable as labour saving devices which facilitate office work to ease cumbersome nature of manual-typing, cyclo-cyling and other office work before the introduction of computer to office work. Computer applications help increase productivity in terms automation and control in industrial setting and in office applications. All over the world the impact of computer has been felt, efficiency and effective use of computer technology and application are positive. Yet, the impact of computer is not limited to science, engineering and technology but can be applied in Education.
The basic question is to what extent has computer technology affected teaching and learning in Business Education in Nigeria. Business education is regarded as a process of instructing person(s) on what happens during business transaction in the office, banks, market and anywhere money changes hands or a type of Education that helps person(s) to learn the facts, acquire the skills, develop abilities to like attitudes useful for success in business situation. The following: book-keeping, Business education, clerical and general office work, distributive, marketing, stenographic and secretarial duties can be performed by a business Educator. Computer technology has developed links which helps the business Educator in carrying out its numerous duties in the field of human endeavour.
Statement of Problem
The importance of Computer Studies as the basics to other disciplines cannot be over stated. It lays the foundation to other subjects especially in business education. However, a look at the academic performance of students in business education cannot be overemphasize. This reveals that student academic performance in business education shows unimpressive performance of students in business education. The problem of this study therefore is: What must be done to bring about the study of computer to the learning of business education in higher institution of learning in order to improve their performance.
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