Background of the study
Webster’s Encyclopedia Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, defines Audio-Visual a Aids as “training or educational materials directed at both the senses of hearing and the sense of sight, films, recordings, photographs, etc used in classroom instructions, library collections or the likes”. The term has also been defined by (Dike, 2013) as; those materials which do not depend solely upon reading to convey meaning. They may present information through the sense of hearing as in audio resources, sight, as in visual resources or through a combination of senses. Indeed, the variety of such resources is a striking characteristic.
According to (Anzaku, 2011) “the term audio-visual materials is commonly used to refer to those instructional materials that may be used to convey meaning without complete dependence upon verbal symbols or language”. Thus according to the above definition, a text book or a reference material does not fall within this grouping of instructional materials but an illustration in a book does. Some audio-visual components are in the nature of process and experience, for example, dramatizing an event or a procedure or making diorama. Some of the audio-visual materials like the motion pictures require the use of equipment to release their latent value. Some do not need equipment at all like an exhibit or a study print. This term designates in common usage both material things as well as processes such as field trips. Anzaku further stated that audio-visual materials include materials and equipment alike, that materials are considered to be system, or body of content of potential value when put to work, while equipment or instructions, often referred to as hardware, components, are the means of presenting such content. The importance of audio-visual materials in the teaching and learning processes cannot be over emphasized. Below are some of the roles of audio-visual materials. Basing learning in sense experience, Extending experience ,Encouraging participation, Stimulating interest ,Individualizes instructions, Serves as a source of information, Making leaning permanent,1) Basing learning in sense experience: stressing the importance of audio-visual materials, ( Ngozi, Samuel, and Isaac, 2012) unanimously agreed that audio-visual materials are very important and useful in education because, the normal learner in so far as the functions of his preceptor mechanisms are concerned, gains understanding in terms of multiple impression recorded through the eye, ear, touch and other series. This is to say that audio-visual materials are the equipment through which that function can occur, that is does not occur in isolation, rather through a balance pattern from any preceptor mechanism that are stimulated by external occurrences.
The usefulness of audio -visual materials in learning cannot be overemphasized. Audio visual stimulate learners. Their effectiveness is derived from the fact that, learners draw from the different things at the same time, and can interpret the message being communicated by the teacher at different levels.
Audio visual aids are instructional materials and devices through which teaching and learning are done in colleges more effectively. Audio visual material are teaching and learning tools whose purpose is to make learning easier for the learners. Audio visual materials are used in the teaching and learning processes to make leaning more enjoyable. Classroom learning depends on effective teaching. Skillful teachers use different techniques to make teaching effective in addition to teaching methods; the subject teacher can introduce audio visual materials.
This is because it is by integrating these with other teaching methods that maximum learning can be achieved.
Audio visual materials are indispensable in the teaching and learning processes. They increase the effectiveness of learning by helping the pupils to assimilate ideas in a more meaningful and interesting manner. Through the appeal to the eye and the car. The)’ provide steady improvement in knowledge and skills. The use audio visual aids would upgrade this teaching of Accounting and give students with learning experience in active participation in all of learning activities.
Audio visual materials are very important in d secondary school as a student teacher on teaching practice; I often faced several lessons pondering on how to introduce them and what audio visual materials I could make use of that could contribute to effective learning.
From what I observed in several secondary schools, the Accounting is not a practical subject like the physical or the biological sciences. Therefore extra efforts should be made to design and utilize appropriate audio-visual materials in order to produce effective learning in the Accounting class. During my teaching practice, I found out that, audio-visual materials could be helpful in solving several problems that teachers of Accounting face in the classroom. However, I observed during the teaching practices exercise that many teachers of Accounting did not make use of audio-visual materials for teaching.
Audio visual is defined as the combination of various digital media types such as text, images, sound and video, into an integrated multi-sensory interactive application or presentation to convey a message or information to an audio. In other words, audio visual means “an individual or a small group using a computer to interact with information that is represented in several media, by repeatedly selecting what to see and hear next” (Agnew, Kellerman and Meyer, 2016).
Reisman (2014) described audio visual as a ray of “computer-driven interactive communication system, which create, store, transmit and retrieve, textual, graphic and audio tory networks of information.
Audio visual could be interpreted as a combination of data carriers, for example video, CD-ROM, floppy disks, Internet and software in which the possibility for an interactive approach is offered (Smeets, 2016; Jager and Lokman, 2016).
The evolution of audio visual has made it very possible for learners to become more involved in their work. With audio visual technologies, they can create audio visual applications as part of their project requirements. This would make them active participant in their own learning process, instead of just being passive learners of the educational content.
Reinsman (2014) expressed that audio visual involves processing, storage, generation, manipulation and retention of audio visual system, and the resources could include text files, pictures, video, audio o, databases, archives, library catalogs, course notes, relevant links to various websites and easy access to search engines available on the Internet (Shuell and Ferber, 2001).
A study by Ubogu (2006) supports the view that audio visual resources facilitate access to all human knowledge, anytime, and anywhere in a friendly, multi-modal, efficient and effective way, by overcoming barriers of distance, language and culture, and by using multiple Internet-connect devices.
It is important to say that the use of audio visual technology has great significance in colleges, universities and research institutions in the Western countries. In these countries, the technology is being seen as a key player to development in all ramifications and essential component of education.
However, Babajide (2003) identified different types of audio visual communication, some of which include chemistry hardware, chemistry software, public address systems, slides, overhead projectors, opaque projectors, videos, cassettes, audio tapes, cassette recorders, flip, time sequence, stream charts, Diorama still motion pictures among others.
Audio visual in Education has been extremely effective in teaching individuals a wide range of subjects. Audio visual is changing the way we communicate with each other. The way we send and receive messages is more effectively done and better comprehended. While a lecture can be extremely informative, a lecture that integrates pictures or video images can help an individual learn and retain information much more effectively. Using interactive CD-ROMs can be extremely effective in teaching students a wide variety of disciplines, most notably languages and music.
A multi-sensory experience can be created for the audio, which in turn, elicits positive attitudes towards its application (Neo and Neo, 2001). Audio visual has also been shown to elicit the highest rate of information retention and result in shorter learning time (Ng and Komiya, 2000). On the part of the creator, designing audio visual application that is interactive and multi-sensory can be both a challenge and thrill. Audio visual application design offers new insights into the learning process of the designer and forces him or her to represent information and knowledge in a new and innovative way (Agnew et al, 1996).
However, information technology application serves different purposes, such acknowledge sharing-portal, search engines, public administration, social service and business solution. Oshodi (1999) posits that awareness created towards the use of information and communication technology over the years is increasing in the classroom learning environment in the third world such that mere verbalization of words alone in the classroom to communicate ideas, skills and attitude to educate learner is futile. Omagbemi (2004) supporting this view expressed that access to audio visual information could stimulate changes and creates conductive learning environment and make learning more meaningful and responsive to the localized and specific needs of learners. There is certainly no lack of vision within educational communities concerning the central role and importance of ICT in the educational contexts of the future (Wood, 2013). That vision is shared by many and is accompanied by an acknowledgement that in order to realize this vision, three factors – access, training and targets must be provided (DFE, 2015; Simpson, Payne, Munro and Hughes, 2016). However, Hoffman (2001) suggested that successful implementation of ICTs need to address five interlocking frameworks for change namely the infrastructure, attitude, staff development, support (technical and administrative) and also sustainability and transferability.
In this research, the use of audio-visual aids will upgrade the teaching of Accounting and give students with learning experiences in active participation in all phases of learning activities. This research paper designed to how tools and techniques enhance teaching the Accounting more effectively.
In this research, I am particularly interested in the Ending out the attitude of the Accounting teachers to the extent of audio-visual materials in selected senior secondary schools in Ikere local government.
Below are some definitions that should be known to the readers of this
Work Attitude: In layman definition, attitude will be referred to the distinct concept of mood or be especially synonymous with teenage rebellion. An attitude can be defined as a positive or negative evaluation of people, objects events, activities, ideas or just about anything in your environment but there is debate about please definition. According to Gordon (2007), he describe attitude as the most distinctive and indispensable concept in contemporary social psychology.
Teaching: Mahuta (2009) defined teaching as the interaction between students and the teachers on a particular subject matter. Teaching is thus defined by Akinpelu (2006) as a triadic transaction between the teacher, the learner and the subject matter, the intention of which is to transform the situation and bring about a change in the perspective or awareness of the learner. Teaching will be the process of imparting knowledge or encoding information acquire to other so that the decodes may be able to modify his behavior.
Learning: According to Travers (2007) he defined learning as relatively permanent change in behavior as a result of exposure to condition in the environment.
Audio-visual: Audio materials according to oxford dictionary, audio materials refers to general terms for hardware (equipment) soft (consumable) and media used in learning, teaching and research which communicate through the ear.
Visual materials: Kate (2005) visual aids will be any object or picture that relate to the subject. Visual materials general terms for hardware and media use in leaning, teaching and research which provide visual experiences such materials include films projectors, picture chart and transparency.
Audio visual materials: audio visual aids or materials are compact in nature because as the name implies is of compound word which when separated portray different connotation. Therefore, for the purpose of this study, the term audio visual will be to work with both a sound and a visual component. According to Erikson (2002) Audio visual is an instructional material that can be used to convey meaning without complete dependence upon verbal symbols or subject. It involve the simultaneous use of the sense organs especially the dual senses that is sense of learning and vision in the learning and teaching process.
Statement of problem
This study will intend to find out the application of audio visual aids in teaching accounting in senior secondary schools in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State, the audio-visual technology is used by many schools, so the effectiveness of audio-visual technology is unquestionable.
Therefore, this study will intend to investigate the following problems:
- Non-availability of audio-visual materials in senior secondary school for the teaching of the accounting.
- Inadequacy of audio-visual materials for teaching of the accounting
- Attitude of the accounting teacher to the use of audio visual materials in the teaching of accounting.
Extent to which audio-visual materials motivate the interest of the learners of accounting .
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