Background of the study
The overall goal of urban solid waste management is to collect, treat and dispose of solid wastes generated by all urban population groups in an environmentally and socially satisfactory manner using the most economical means available. Local governments are usually authorized to have responsibility for providing solid waste management services, and most local government laws give them exclusive ownership over waste once it has been placed outside a home or establishment for collection. The problems of waste generation and management in most cities especially in developing has become one of the intractable environmental problems facing urban centres. This situation could be attributed to low level of technology that is not sophisticated enough to handle the high rate of waste generation (Baum, 1973). Human population and rural-urban migration has increase through urbanization, natural increase rate and industrialization, yet the service rendered is not sizeable enough to control the high level of solid waste generated in urban areas and these have contributed to a large extent, the nuisance and the damaging effect of the urban environment (Sule, 2004). Today, the rate at which waste is being generated is about 70% as compared to the total rate of its disposal which is 30% (Edu, 2003). No doubt Edu (2003) argued that waste could be anything which may not be directly useful or needed by man. In Nigeria, the dehumanizing effects of these circumstances in our urban lives and brighted environments has often been cited and noted as contributing causes of Nigerian urban decay (Asuquo, 1979). Cross River State and Calabar in particular is not left out in this scenario despite the huge revenue allocated to waste disposal and management, the rate of waste generation and disposal is really alarming (Wegner, 1991). The region is crowded with biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste which posed great threat to urban environmental quality in the area. It is also surprise that the residents in the area are ignorance of the danger associated with indiscriminate waste disposal, even when the dump sites are provided, they still neglect it and liter their refuse on the environment. In this vein, one may ask why the residents are unable to manage their waste in an acceptable manner, what is then responsible for the negative attitude of the people towards waste disposal and management in the area. As cities grow economically, business activity and consumption patterns drive up solid waste quantities. At the same time, increased traffic congestion adversely affects the productivity of the solid waste fleet. Productivity loss is exacerbated by longer hauls required of the fleet, as open lands for disposal are further and further away from urban centers. The challenge is to rationalize worker and vehicle performance, while expanding services to a growing urban population (FAO, 2011).
In developing countries, it is common for municipalities to spend 20-50 percent of their available recurrent budget on solid waste management. Yet, it is also common that 30-60 percent of all the urban solid waste in developing countries is uncollected and less than 50 percent of the population is served. In some cases, as much as 80 percent of the collection and transport equipment is out of service, in need of repair or maintenance. In most developing countries, open dumping with open burning is the norm (World Bank, 2012). Abel (2009) provides that, performance and profitability of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management in a low-income city. The research provides an overview of methods and models for integrated planning of a two-phase program: MSW collection and transportation, and MSW treatment. We present the case study of Matadi (the Democratic Republic of Congo) that has a low level of the MSW management compared to other African cities. We develop a spreadsheet model for collection and transportation of MSW which is relevant for low-income cities and enables determining the waste collection fee. A CDM decay model is used to predict the GHG emissions in disposal site. The MSW treatment plant in case of Matadi is evaluated. For the anaerobic digestion technology selected as appropriate for this plant, the key factors that ensure profitability of the plant are as follows: tipping fee from the municipality (19% of total revenue), amount of carbon credits which can sum up to 16% of the total revenue, expansion of waste collection range from 25 to 50 km. The methods of this study can be used for solving waste problem in other low-income cities where the budget for municipal services is scanty, particularly when starting from a very low level of MSW management. Ajani, (2007) and Arlosoroff, (1982) age of recipients, location of recipients and occupation of recipients are positively related to the probability of using public waste collection service while the number of years of schooling, amount paid for waste collection service, household size and total monthly income of recipient are negatively related to the probability of using public waste collection service.
According Bartone (2000), large generation of solid waste at high rate need efficient technology to manage the wastes. Of 201 respondents to questionnaire in Abeokuta, 35.8% used waste collection services, 64.2% used other waste disposal options, 16.4% used both, 68.7% and 58.7% were aware of waste collection service and waste management regulations, respectively; while 28.4% separated their solid wastes at source. Blight and Mbande (1996) a well-managed city with medium or low income may be significantly different from a similar city with poor urban MSW management. Waste stream analysis, material balance and lifecycle assessment may be helpful in sustainable landfill management. Sustainable landfill management may not be possible in absence of complete understanding and required capacity enhancement along with financial support.
Developing and least developed countries are facing serious problems of solid waste management system (Zurbrugg,2008). Solid waste management is a major environmental concern in many urban areas in Tanzania which needs an immediately action. This situation is severe in cities such as Dar-es-salaam, Mwanza, Arusha and Dodoma region (2009). Local Government Authorities in many cities are unable to deliver services effectively while illegal dumping of domestic and industrial waste is common practiced. The government in Dodoma Municipality embark on initiatives to addresses problem concerning solid wastes management by mobilizing community working groups under Public-Private Partnership (PPPs) approach about 8-10 solid wastes collectors in Dodoma town by year 2004 were involved and waste collection points established (Dodoma, 2005).
Although numerous efforts undertaken by Municipal government solve problem still solid waste problem dominates exist. With reference to presentation on Community Based Monitoring System (CBMS) in Manila Philippines (2008) discussed that the problem of Solid Waste Management in Dodoma Municipal is out of control in many wards (Dodoma, 2005). Therefore the study examined factors contributing perseverance prevalence of poor Solid Waste Management in urban areas with focus to Makole Ward in Dodoma Municipal. Specifically the study identified ways and tools used by community on solid waste management, examined community’s’ awareness and attitude towards solid waste and solid waste management; discovered existence of institutional and legal framework.
Statement of the problem
The challenges of waste management have been a growing concern for the national government, local authorities, environmentalists, researchers and the communities at large. However, the researcher observesthat, attitudes of Nigerians towards wastes management is a bottle neck. Many urbanites feel unconcerned and look at such problems as government “palaver”. Besides, some urban dwellers consider the heterogeneous urban centers as a “no mans land” and discern simple norms and value of keeping a clean environment than imbibing the culture of “cleanness in next to godliness” so much preached is next places of commercialized. Therefore, the researcher is of the opinion that nonchalant attitudes of the residents are responsible for the challenges of waste management.
The researcher observes that roads to waste collection depots in Ikere Ekiti city have become a problem. Even though their vehicle do have fault most of the time which makes accessibility to waste difficult. These prevent collection vans to reach this designated site and hence garbage keeps accumulating. Therefore, the researcher is of the opinion that lack of good roads to waste collection depot is responsible for the challenge of waste management in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State.
Every sanitary activities demand good modern waste disposal for effective cleaning in any place in the world. However, in a city like Ikere, these modern waste disposals have not been made available for the waste management to carryout effective sanitation. Therefore, the researcher is the view that non availability of modern waste disposal is one of the challenges of waste management.
Waste management is so capital intensive for the government to handle due to the interest of the government of the day. Lack of finance couple with technical and administrative capability to properly manage the increasing and complex nature of solid wastes that is generated daily. This is because subsequent governments have made their financial basis very weak, through the revenue allocation formula and joint accounts, which apart from paying workers’ salaries; little is left for them to function. Therefore, the researcher is of the opinion that poor financing from government is one of the fundamental challenges of the waste management in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State.
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