THE EFFECTIVE UTILIZATION OF MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES IN NIGERIAN ORGANIZATION

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION:

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Management needs a lot of tools to be able to administer effectively in the day to day running of the business. Management by objectives is one of such tools. It is a way of getting improved results in managerial action. Management by objectives can be described as a managerial method where by the superior and the subordinate managers in an organization identify major areas of responsibility, in which they will work, set some standards for good or bad performance and the measurement of results against those standards Derek (2005:156).

Management by objective is also called Managing By Objectives. However, there have been certain individuals who have long placed emphasis on management by objectives and by so doing have given impetus to its development as a system. Management by objectives refers to a structured management technique of setting goals for any organizational unit.

George S. Odiorne (1981:1) in his book management by objectives defined this concept as “a system of management whereby the superior and subordinate jointly identify objectives, define individual major areas of responsibility in terms of results expected, and use these objectives and expected results as guides for operating the unit and assessing the contribution of each of its member. Besides, Odiorne points out that management by objectives is a “system of management” an overall frame work used to guide the organizational unit and outline its direction. He went further to point out that “the superior and subordinate jointly identify objectives”. In other words, it is a participative management procedure that requires commitment and co-operation. The definition deals with identifying the “results” that are expected. Thus management by objectives concentrates on the output of the organisation evaluating people by assessing their contribution to this output.

Management by objectives is a strategy where in the management sets specific goals for the employees to accomplish within a fixed time period. Management by objective is a dynamic system which seeks to integrate the company a need to clarify and achieve its profit and growth goals with the managers need to contribute and develop himself. It is a demanding and rewarding style of managing a business.

Management by objectives can work in any size of organization if the procedures are understood and managers are patient in letting the system set in first. Management by objective is an effective planning, control and development system.

Management by objective was defined by Koontz and O’Donnell (1968:485) as a technique or system or method of management where by the superior and subordinate managers of an organization agreed on its broad goals, translate these goals into a chain of specific short term goals, defined each individuals major areas of responsibility in terms of result expected, continually reviewed the accomplishment as the sole basis of assessing and rewarding them.

Management by objectives gives the employee the opportunity to participate in decision making, the limits within these limits. It assumes that the employee has been properly selected and trained, and is informed that the employee will be responsible for achieving the desired results in the organization.

Organizations are ubiquitous. According to Mullins (2005:256), organizations are designed by people to overcome individual limitations and achieve individually. Hence, organization become a means of survival for the people and exerts an important daily influence on the life of the people and the way they live. The major decider for the survival of any organization is the presence of capable men and women with the right technique to combine the organization resources (man, machine, materials and money) to achieve organization goals.

It is appropriate to note that management of companies in Nigeria lack sufficient techniques to make them manage effectively. Some of these tools are not used and when used they are not properly utilized. Management by objective is not only a managerial strategy to achieve a well co-ordinated managerial goal, but it is also a popular management technique that cut across or pervade all human activities namely business areas, educational, government, health care and non profit organisation.

Most of the techniques, system, tools of management are hardly understood resulting in losses and damages to the organisation. Besides, it is the wrong use of technique and unwillingness of top management to utilize the right tool to solve the management problems.

It is on these trends that the researcher intends to find out the prospect and problems of effective utilization of management by objectives by companies in Nigeria. In order to investigate some of the above problems, one of the leading financial institutions in the country, first Bank of Nigeria Plc Okpara Avenue Enugu has been chosen.

 

1.1    STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

It is pertinent to note that management of companies in Nigeria. Lack sufficient technique to make them manage well. Some of these tools are not used and when used they are not properly utilized. Management by objective if not only a managerial strategy to achieve a well co-ordinated managerial goals, but it is also a popular management technique that cut across or pervade all human activities namely; business areas, educational, government, health care and non-profit organisation.

Most of these objectives are hardly understood resulting in losses, breakage’s and on so. The worse are business in the medium range where most banks fall. Most companies hand down objectives to subordinates without adequate explanation, hence failure of management by objectives in such cases. Management by objectives will remove all of these problems mentioned above and subordinates will now formulate objectives, set targets according to their strength and weaknesses, no stoppages, no delays, no losses to the companies. This will help subordinates to formulate realizable goals.

How to get complete project materials


WE ALSO ACCEPT BITCOIN:  1622QAeaHXnWPArT7bBC6zX4ywsu5t3PmQ Step 1: make payment of N2,500 to any of the bank below


NAME:                       TITUS AYANI SOLA
BANK:                       FIRST BANK PLC
ACCT NO:                  3111741042
ACCOUNT TYPE:       SAVINGS
AMOUNT:                  N2,500

NAME:                       TITUS AYANI SOLA


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Updated: 24th June 2017 — 8:08 pm

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