Background of the Study
According to National Population Commission (NPL) (2006) views that increasing in the level of contraceptive use among women of child bearing age is an important component of many national population and developmental programms in Nigeria.
However, the prevalence use of these methods is still low despite the efforts of many governmental and non-governmental agencies. Globally, unplanned pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections persist as significant threats to women’s reproductive health. Barriers to the use of modern contraceptive by women might inhibit uptake a novel women controlled methods for preventing unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections e.g. HIV, Gonorrhea e.t.c. Illegal abortions arising from unwanted pregnancies constitute a major reproductive health problem in Nigeria, especially Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State. Data indicate that the proportion of women having unwanted pregnancies in Ikere Local Government Area is increasing: women and couples increasingly want fewer children, and although they are also beginning to bear fewer children, behaviour is lagging behind preference. Thus women and couples are increasingly having more children than they want.
Moshia Kim (2002) said since abortion is illegal under most conditions in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State, an increase in the incidence of unwanted pregnancy is likely to result in a rise in the incidence of unsafe conditions.
This is in turn, is likely to raise the proportion of women with abortion related morbidity and mortality. The increase incidence of complications from unsafe abortion can here a substantial impact on the town’s fragile a substantial impact on the town’s fragile health system. The use of modern contraceptive method (oral pulls, condoms e.t.c) has traditionally been low in Ikere Local Governent Area of Ekiti but there is evidence of an increase during the past decade.
The awareness and perception of female condom as a contraceptive method is a barrier among child bearing. The national governments, agencies and NGOS, working on fertility reduction programmes through contraception. This study determined to bring awareness and perception to the usage of female condom as a contraceptive method to child bearing among married women in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
The important element to define contraception is a deliberate prevention of conception or impregnant. It is a deliberate use of artificial method or offer technique to prevent pregnancy as a consequence of sexual intercourse.
American dictionary defines contraception as a use of a device or produce to prevent conception as result of sexual activity.
The major forms of artificial contraception are barrier method, of which the most common is the condom, the contraception pill which contains synthetic sex hormones that prevent ovulation in the female intrauterine devices such as coil which prevents the fertilized ovum from implanting in the uterus and male or female sterilization.
In a nutshell contraception simply means birth control. It is the practice of preventing unwanted pregnancies especially by the use of contraception. Medical dictionary by Fariex Partner (2012) contraception is a way by interfering with the normal process of ovulation fertilization and implantation. There are different kinds of birth control that acts at different point in the process. Also, it is a process or technique for preventing pregnancy by means of a medication, device or method that blocks or aiters one or more of the processes of reproduction in such way that sexual union can occur without impregnation.
WHO (2015) made an estimation of 25 million women in developing countries would like to delay or stop child bearing but are not using any method of contraception. It also of view that some family planning methods as condoms, help prevent the transmission of HIV and ofter sexually transmitted infections (STLS). Contraception prevent deaths of mother and children.
The use of contraceptive method has mencase in many parts of the world especially in America but very low in Africa, especially in Ikere Ekiti Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
Because there are types of contraceptive method in Ikere Ekiti Local Government Area of Ekiti State. the contraceptive use can be grouped into two. They are modern method and traditional method. These are the modern method, oral pill, implants, llintrautire, sterilization, condoms. The traditional method are calendar method, withdrawal (coitus interrupts), rings, e.t.c.
Therefore, the project is an introduction to this specialized fulled and since it is intended for Ikere Ekiti Local Government Area of Ekiti State. A comparative study will be made and conclusion drawn from awareness and perception of female condom as a contraceptive method of contraception in Ikere Ekiti Local Government Area.
In Ikere Ekiti Local Government Area, female condom is allowed especially among married couples. Contraception is often necessary in order to plan for children and without it there is a risk of unplanned pregnancies. In Ikere Ekiti Local Government Area, this often results in abortions by untrained person with resultant morbidity and mortality Moronkola O.A. (2006) women world wide are exposed to the risk of unwanted and unintended pregnancies as a result of ineffective or non-use of contraceptive. Women who are able to use known contraceptive methods are able to decide if and when they want children as well as how many children they want.
WHO (2007). In the developing world, almost 137 millions women who want to avoid pregnancy do not use any method of family planning of the 210 millions pregnancies that occur year; almost 80 millions are unplanned pregnancy. Each year, approximately 42 millions pregnant women seek termination of their unplanned pregnancy of the 20 millions women who undergo safe abortion by trained staff, 67, 000 die annually. Almost all of these deaths (99%) occur in underdeveloped countries (2009) viewed that, report on Nigeria women. 31.5% believed that having sex once with a man would not result to pregnancy, although 90.0% knew about the benefits of family planning. Consideration of personal health and husband is approval were major determinants regarding the respondents use of contraceptives. The authors concluded that there was a need for continuous education about contraception.
Abma J.C, Martinez G.M, Mosher W.D et al (2004) believes that the low rate of condom use can be a result of lack of knowledge regarding how to use a condom, where to get condoms and the benefits of condom use. The DHSA study, reported a decline in the level of knowledge of contraceptive method from primitive to now. When looking at married women, more than 40% do not use method of contraception, with modern method of contraception being used almost exclusively. Only 0.1% of women relied on traditional methods and of the modern methods injectable contraceptive was the most widely used.
The WHO campaign on health for all in 2010, has brought awareness to the use of contraceptive method which tose markedly as the education of the woman increased as well as when the woman had at least three children. Unlike in those days that one woman can give birth to 10 children with the help of WHO, the use of contraceptive method has widely spread to most houses in Ikere Ekiti Local Government Area of Ekiti State, a traditional method is still practiced and it is very common such as ring, abstention etc, resulting in a high rate of polygamy. In Ikere Ekiti Local Government Area, the contraception rates is estimated to be 20%.
Every September 26 is a world contraception day, devoted to raise awareness and improving education about sexual and reproductive health, with a vision of a world where every pregnancy is wanted. It is supported by a group of governments and international NGOS including the office of population affairs, the Asian pracfic council on contraception, the German foundation for world population etc.
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