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EFFECT OF REINFORCEMENT ON BEHAVIOURAL DISORDERED PUPILS

CHAPTER ONE

Background to the Study

In Nigeria, students‘ aggression on school campuses is on the increase and has caught the attention of and raised much concern from the Ministry of Education, school authorities, the media, civic society and the public in general (Amedahe and Owusu-Banahene, 2007). Many teachers, parents, and educational authorities in Ghana today, are worried about matters of classroom discipline. There have been complaints from teachers, parents, school authorities, educational administrators and the larger society deploring the spate of indiscipline, hooliganism and vandalism in our schools and generally among the youth. Some of the recorded and reported incidences of students‘ aggression in Ghanaian schools include: six students arrested for possessing weapons in school in 2005; Kumasi academy closed down after a violent clash between students and staff in 2006; a bloody clash between students of St Thomas Aquinas and Labone secondary school in 2005 ; Cape Coast Technical School students destroying school property in2006; and a student arrested for possessing a Reich Protector Automatic pistol ,with one round of ammunition in Aggrey Memorial Zion High School in 2005.(Amedahe and Owusu-Banahene, 2007). Authority figures, such as teachers are often at a loss on how best to proceed in coping with such forms of deviant behaviour. Many teachers and school administrators still resort to the use of outdated and psychologically unsound disciplinary measures. These measures often border on physical force and corporal punishments of various forms (Agbenyega, 2006).All these are done to, maintain ‗disciplined environment‘. Yet the problem does not seem to be reducing 3 but rather moving from bad to worse. Although several countries, including New Zealand, Australia, United Kingdom and some states in the United States have recognized the deleterious effects of corporal punishment and thus have abolished it, Ghana officially still adopts the practice (Agbenyega, 2006). In Ghana, corporal punishment has been the main form of punishing students before and after independence. In the late 1970‘s, Ghana Education Service (G.E.S.) partially banned corporal punishment in schools but allowed head teachers or their deputies to administer it to children because it was felt that the majority of teachers were abusing it and injuring students(Boakye 2001). Punishment in Ghanaian schools is based on the thinking that it facilitates learning among pupils (Boakye 2001; Edumadze 2004). According to Woody (1969), as cited in Godwyll (1992), all educators, even those in positions that are only peripherally connected with the classroom, have encountered children with disordered behaviours in the course of their professional duties. Children with disordered behaviours are found in any educational programme and they influence it to some degree. Charles (2002), Senter (1999) and Menera and Wright (1985) shared this view when they said pupils‘ disruptive behaviours are the source of most teachers‘ greatest fear. To them, teachers who are considered by their supervisors and others to have poor classroom control and discipline problems are teachers whose students display high level of disruptive behaviours. Unless adults, such as teachers, are able to manage the child‘s behaviours they could lead to a series of critical configurations. Both teachers and students may 4 have to function in an unhealthy learning environment. School personnel and the community may discover conflicting objectives. The individual teacher may experience dissatisfaction that would modify both professional and personal aspects of his life (Charles, 2002). It would not be an over exaggeration if one asserts that in most schools in Ghana today, discipline is simply non-existent. Heads of institutions and members of staff in some schools have had to live as if they were ―sitting on time bombs‖ – in great uncertainty and insecurity – because of the destructive and unpredictable nature of some of the students (Amedahe and Owusu-Banahene, 2007). Thus, behaviour problems can be a serious threat to decent life and safety of property. It is important for any child to develop a balance between academic achievement, self-confidence with adults and peers, and active, curious exploration of the world. Behaviour disordered children especially those who fall into the category of personality problem children have particular difficulty achieving such balance. According to Godwyll (1992), if a society would spend its scarce resources in educating people only to allow a good number of them to drop out or become unproductive in society, and further create serious problems that call for more spending to contain the situation then the planning strategies of that society leaves much to be desired. The fact that individuals and government spend money on education makes it imperative for any serious minded planner, researcher, parent or teacher to be interested in the disorders that interfere with 5 the normal learning process of pupils and students. Godwyll (1992) again alluded that scholars agree that in any given complex society about 25% of the population can be considered as individuals with disordered behaviours. This percentage of the population cannot be ignored if we are to build a vibrant nation. In view of the above consensus of scholars over the percentage of individuals with disordered behaviour in the population, it would not be incorrect to indicate that the more we expand educational facilities to absorb more children the greater we increase the probability of having higher numbers of behaviour-disordered individuals in the schools.

The exertion of the financial resources of the state and its capacity to cope with rising educational demands, have been the concerns of many parents as to the quality of education being provided in public schools. As a crucial resource to secondary education, teaching strength, quality of the teaching 6 stock as well as the work environment must attract some prestige and decency. Hence, creating the right context for effective teacher job performance is highly necessary. Ibukun (2001) however observed that in some public schools, infrastructure have depreciated remarkably, libraries are either non-existent or poorly equipped, teachers are poorly paid, and students are seen in public places during school hours, loitering or engaged in non-educational activities. Also, according to Igbinedion (2004), lack of good infrastructure and other facilities alone does not account for the disenchantment with public schools. Others include reduced teaching and learning time, absenteeism and lack of accountability on the part of teachers. Many parents have therefore expressed serious concerns and opted for private schools for their children even if they could barely meet up with the financial implication. The basic assumption underlying this is that private schools, for which parents mostly pay high tuition fees to enrol their children, are better equipped, and assure adequate attention by the teachers to the learning and psychological needs of their children to grow as useful citizens of the country. Private schools are believed to offer better incentives to teachers, and it is also believed that strict rules of conduct enhance their performance. Against the foregoing backdrops, this study assesses the organisational climate of public and private schools in Lagos State as essential predictor of the essence and quality of teacher productivity. It investigates the extent to which internal school climate differs by school type (public or private). In doing this, the study assesses school characteristics and processes in order to establish the type of relationship existing between public and private school‟s class size, available facilities, school policies, leadership style, motivational strategies and teacher morale. The study addresses the two issues of context and performance as complementary variables that must be inherently interactive to ensure a healthy educational system.

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Step 1: make payment of N2,000 to the below bank details


NAME:                       TITUS AYANI SOLA
BANK:                       FIRST BANK PLC
ACCT NO:                  3111741042
ACCOUNT TYPE:       SAVINGS
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Updated: 7th July 2019 — 6:59 am

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