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BACTERIAL COLONIZATION ON HUMAN SKIN

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Human skin bears a characteristic bacterial flora, which are usually regarded as innocuous symbiont or sometimes it may be opportunistic pathogen. The normal skin flora does not have adverse effect except the production of odorous substances (Schlegel, 1993) and these skin bacterial flora derive their nutrition from the human perspiration. The human skin inhibits the invasion of most of the pathogenic bacteria (Chiller et al., 2001). The antimicrobial defense mechanism of skin includes mechanical rigidity of the stratum corneum and its low moisture content, lipid content, production of lysozyme, acidity etc. (Harder et al., 1997). Skin bacteria become sometimes pathogenic both normally and potentially.

Cogen et al. (2008) stated that interdisciplinary collaborations at the interface of microbiology and immunology have greatly advanced our understanding of the host-symbiont and host-pathogen relationships. They further stated that very little literature regarding the influence of resident cutaneous microflora in skin health had been evaluated. However, in the last 15-20 years pathogenic roles of microbes present on the human skin have been studied. The present article reviews relevant advanced studies on bacterial skin flora with special reference to innocuous symbionts and potential pathogens in addition to antibiotic effects.

The normal human skin is colonized by huge numbers of bacteria that live as commensals on its surface. At times bacteria not normally found there may colonize the epidermis and lead rapidly to disease. Apart from these pathogenic organisms, a wide range of bacteria land fortuitously on the skin, but are unable to multiply. Organisms not normally considered as skin flora may sometimes colonize it. When the skin is inflamed or abnormal, it is often difficult to determine whether an organism isolated is causing or contributing to the observed pathology. If the skin is damaged or the immune status of the subject impaired, bacteria usually regarded as non-pathogenic in body surface may assume the role of opportunist pathogens. Within a given species, there are also strain differences in virulence. Some strains have a particular tendency to cause disease, perhaps due to greater adherence to epithelial cells or enzyme production . There are some studies investigating skin flora on healthy and ill population to find out any possible relation between disease and microbial flora of skin [2,3].

A diverse microbial flora is associated with the skin and mucous membrane of every human being from shortly after birth until death. The human body which contains about 1013 cells routinely harbors about 1014 bacteria. This bacterial population constitutes the normal microbial flora. The normal microbial flora is relatively stable with specific genera populating various body regions during particular periods in an individual’s life. Tannock (1995). 
Microorganisms of the normal flora may aid the host [By competing for micro-environment more effectively than such pathogens Salmonella Spp or by producing nutrients that the host can use. It may harm the host by causing dental caries, abscesses or other infectious diseases or it may exist as commercials by inhabiting the host for long periods without causing detectable harm or benefits. Even though most elements of the normal microbial flora inhabiting the human skin, nails, eyes, genitalia and gastrointestinal tract are harmless in healthy individuals, these organisms frequently cause disease in compromised hosts. 
The normal flora in human usually develops in an orderly sequence, after birth leading to the stable populations of bacteria that made up the normal adult flora. The main factor determining the composition of the normal flora in a body region is the nature of the local environment which is determined by pH, temperature, redox potential, oxygen, water and nutrient levels. Other factors such as peristalsis, saliva hysozyme secretion and secretion of immunoglobulin also play roles in flora control.

The local environment is like a concern to in which one principal instrument usually dominates. For example, an infact begins to contact organisms as it moves through the birth canal. A gram positive population [Bifido bacteria] predominates in the gastrointestinal tract early in life. If the infant is breast-fed. This bacterial population is reduced and displaced some what by a gram negative flora [Enterobacteriaceae] when the baby is bottle feel. The type of liquid diet provided to the infant is the principal instrument of this flora controls, immunoglobulins and perhaps other element is breast milk may also be important.

Statement of the Problem

The classification of bacterial skin infections (pyodermas) is an attempt to integrate various clinical entities in an organized manner. Medicated soaps have germicidal substances like chloroxylenol pothaium. mercuric widide trichiorocarberihide etc incorporated into them in order to greatly their antibacterial activity. It is therefore necessary to investigate the artibaterial activity of three medicated soap (Asepos carat and temperate) on staphylococcus aureus isolated from wound inflection.

Skin infections may be either primary or secondary. Primary infections have characteristic morphologies and courses, are initiated by single organisms, and usually occur in normal skin. They are most frequently caused by Staphylococcus aureusStreptococcus pyogenes, and coryneform bacteria. Impetigo, folliculitis, boils, and erythrasma are common examples. Systemic infections may also have skin manifestations. Secondary infections originate in diseased skin as a superimposed condition.

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Updated: 3rd July 2019 — 10:16 am

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