IMPACT OF VISUAL INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ON JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SOCIAL STUDIES
1.1 Background to the Study
Educational instructional resources are the asset which facilitate the attainment of
educational objectives and make the process of teaching and learning smooth and effective at the school level. These instructional resources include people, resources, finance, time and so on (Ndayelechi, 2013). Visual instructional resources are any-thing that helps the teacher to promote teaching and learning activities in social studies.They include printed resources, pictures, diagram, maps and charts, filmstrips and slides, pencils, pen, cartoons, model and anything other than can aid the teacher’s effectiveness (Fageyinbo, 2004). Visual instructional resources are educational input of vital importance to the teaching of any subject in the school curriculum. Appreciation of visual instructional resources would help the teacher and learner to achieve specific objectives. Okam, (2007) was of the opinion that educators must be prepared to display the function in terms of helping them to develop readiness for using these resources and encouraging appropriate learner participation in the use of these resources during classroom work.
Many teachers of Social Studies are not used to visual instructional resources in their
teaching and learning. Jibrin, (2013) Associated this to poor method of teaching, improper use of visual instructional resources, rote learning and lack of proper knowledge and skills of classroom instruction. Visual aids will not be of much use in the classroom unless teachers take care to use them to teach the learners, because they help learners to promote greater understanding of the experience. Students poor academic performance may persist if appropriate measures, such as, integrating of visual instructional resources in junior secondary schools are not made.
Social Studies as a school subject has over the years occupied an important position
in the school curriculum. The Federal Ministry of Education in Nigeria categorized Social
Studies as one of the core subjects in Junior Secondary School curriculum (National; Policy on Education, 2004). The subject has been recognized as effective tool for citizenship education in Nigeria. It is also a subject that equips the learners with critical skills to attempt to tackle problems of man. The Federal Ministry of Education’s (2007) Nine Year Basis Education Curriculum for Social Studies has overall objectives of enabling students to develop a sense of solidarity and sharing based on a sense of security in one’s own identity; inculcate the right type of values and develop the capability to recognize the many dimensions of being human in different cultural and social contexts. Social Studies education is very important in transforming the teachers and the students to acquire desirable attitude, wider experience, and unique methodology, to be useful member in the society.
Statement of the problem
Learning is more permanent when learners visualize resources in the teaching and
learning process. Visual aids that is relevant to teaching and learning by a qualified Social Studies teacher. They are the starting point and a foundation for attaining effective interaction between teacher and students in Social Studies classroom. This is because the success or failure of Social Studies lesson depends on the choice and utilization of effective teaching technique by the social studies teacher.
There are complaints and accusation that teachers of Social Studies are still
accustomed to traditional techniques of teaching especially the lecture techniques despite the visual instructional resourceshave been found to be effective in interaction between teacher and the students as revealed by some researchers like Obeka, (2013). These teachers – centered techniques of teaching Social Studies are characterized and largely criticized for shifting interest and creativity in students thereby limiting academic performance among Junior Secondary School students. Under this arrangement, the teacher is the disseminator of knowledge, the knower of the answers to all questions who less often than not allow students inputs in the teaching and learning. Also, it hardly encourages students to engage in practical and creative learning activities during the teaching and learning process. Therefore, there is the need to use visual instructional resource to see if there will be improvements in their academic performance in Social Studies.
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