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EFFECTS OF HAWKING ON JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SOCIAL STUDIES

EFFECTS OF HAWKING ON JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SOCIAL STUDIES

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
Child-Street hawking is a common phenomenon in Nigeria today. This is more
prevalent in the urban areas. Hawking is a form of trade in which the seller (hawker)
carry wares (commodities or goods) from one place to another in search of prospective
buyers. Child-Street hawking refers to the selling of goods carry out by a person below
the age of eighteen (child-street hawker).Among child-street hawkers are school going
children (in-school child-hawkers) who out of necessity combine schooling with
economic activities despite its consequences. The phenomenon of child street hawking attracted concern from government, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO), teachers and school administrators. Studies show that children combine schooling and hawking to contribute to family survival, purchase learning materials and pay school fees (Johnson, & Ihesie, 2015). Literature suggest that parent allow their children in to hawking due to the prevailing harsh economic situation in Nigeria (Akpan, & Oluwabamide, 2010; Shailong, Onuk, & Beshi, 2011; Ayodele, & Olubayo-Fatiregun, 2014; and Clark &Yesufu, 2014; idris, Yahaya, Sambo, Muazu, & Isa, 2014). Empirical study shows a significant relationship between parents‟ occupational level and street hawking among children (Dada, 2013). Given this situation, it is unlikely that child-street hawking could be put to end any sooner.

In recent times, in-school child-street hawking has been an area of wide research
(Iorvaa, 2007; Ashimolowo, Aromolaran & Inegbedion, 2010; Faruta, &Yambuk, 2013;
Bosah, Offem, & Obumneke-Okeke, 2015 and Johnson, & Ihesie, 2015) due to the
concern about their academic performance. Academic performance is a key aspect of
educational system. It is a yardstick through which students‟ progress, teacher`s effectiveness and over all educational standard is determine. It could be defined as the ability of the students in school work which meet or exceeds the expected grades. Generally, child-street hawking has been assumed to be one of the factors influencing academic performance of students in school.

Researchers such as: Akpan, and Oluwabamide, (2010); Ashimolowo, et al
(2010); Ubajaka, Duru, Nnebue, Okwaraoha, andIfeadike, (2010);Ekpenyong, andSibiri,
(2011); and Johnson, and Ihesie, (2015) call for legislation against child-street hawking
in Nigeria. This suggests that when child-street hawkers are barred from hawking it
enable them the time to concentrate on school work. Thought it is desirable to discourage any activity that will interfere with schooling of the children, however, it is not feasible when such activity is the means of livelihood in the absent of other alternatives
(Omokhodion, Omokhodion & Odusote, 2006; Anumaka, 2010). Insisting on exclusive
schooling for children from low income or unemployed parents will likely: hinders
enrolment; leads to withdrawal and drop out of school due cost of schooling and need for survival. Given the above situation it is better to allow school going children to engage in income generating activity while they continue schooling than not to be in school at all (Okpukpara, Chine, Uguru, & Nnaemeka, 2006).

Statement of the Problem
In-school child-street hawking attracted concern from government, NonGovernmental
Organizations (NGO), teachers and school administrators and researchers call for legislation against child-street hawking in Nigeria. It is supposed that the ban would enable school going children concentrate on school work for improve academic
performance. However, the prevalent of child-street hawking appears to on the increase
as each day pass by. Thought it is desirable to discourage any activity that will interfere
with schooling of the children, however, it seems not feasible when such activity is the
means of livelihood in the absent of other alternatives. The cost of schooling and need for the children to contribute to family survival is hindering school enrolment, withdrawal
and drop out of school of students from poor background. Given the above situation it is
better to allow school going children to engage in income generating activity while they
continue schooling than not to be in school at all.

How to get complete project materials


Step 1: make payment of N2,000 to the below bank details


NAME:                       TITUS AYANI SOLA
BANK:                       FIRST BANK PLC
ACCT NO:                  3111741042
ACCOUNT TYPE:       SAVINGS
AMOUNT:                  N2000

STEP 2: AFTER PAYMENT SEND THE PROJECT TOPIC AND YOUR EMAIL ADDRESS TO 08063666753

Updated: 9th November 2018 — 11:10 am

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