EFFECTS OF DEMONSTRATION AND PROBLEM-SOLVING METHODS ON SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN ECONOMICS
1.1 Background to the study
Economics is one of the important social science subject taught at the senior
secondary school (SSS) level. It is one of the core social science subject that students
are required to pass at credit level in order to qualify for admission into tertiary institution
to pursue social science programmes. In addition credit pass in economics is require for
admission into most social science courses at the tertiary level of education. Example of
such courses are Business Education, Accounting, Business Administration and
Economics among others. Inspite of this central and important position of economic
among other social science and related disciplines, studies revealed that academic
performance of students in economics at West African Examination Council (WAEC)
has been very poor and unimpressive (Adebisi 2008 and Njoku 2010). Many factors had
been suggested as contributing to this poor performance of students in economics, some of these factors include: poor teaching methods, lack of adequate teaching materials, lack of trained teachers, and lack of understanding of the bases of teaching and learning social science subjects (Adeyegbe, 2010).
A number of activity – oriented instructional strategies have been advocated for
by curriculum designers and social science educators to help improve on the failure rate
among secondary school social science students. Examples of these include guided
discovery approach and problem – solving for teaching senior secondary school
economics (FRN, 2004).
Research findings have however, revealed that to date, large proportion of social
science teachers , economics inclusive still resort to the use of lecture method rather than the activity –oriented strategies advocated for, such as demonstration method problemsolving and others (Bichi 2002). Several other researchers, notably Awodi (2004) and Oyedokun (2005) reported the indiscriminate used of lecture method by social science teachers economics inclusive. The indiscriminate use of the method is attributed to the academic level of the teacher, non – availability of instructional materials and the pressure to cover a prescribed examination syllabus in a relatively short period of time (Okebukola, 2005).
Statement of the Problem
The performance of students in economics which has been on a declining state in
the recent years, this is evident by the changes in the recent West African Examination
Council (WAEC) result of 2010 – 2013, for instance, the results available from Kaduna
state ministry of education showed 23.28% passed in 2010, 23.12% in 2011, 18.11%
passed in 2012 and 13.47% in 2013, the details is in appendix II.
Prominent among the factors which have been identified as contributing to the
persistent low interest and low level of performance in economics are poor teaching
method adopted by Economics teachers (Ogundare 2005), (Adeyemi 2006) the predominant used of text and lecture method in teaching economics, learner variables such as home background, lack of organized strategies for concept formation, gender, teacher characteristics and memory skills, (Falade, 2006). It has therefore become apparent that the lecture method which is currently the predominant teaching approach in Nigerian secondary schools is inappropriate and ineffective for achieving the objectives of the economics programme.
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