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THE EFFECTS OF TRANSMISSION PROGRAM IN REDUCING MOTHER TO CHILD HIV/AIDS

THE EFFECTS OF TRANSMISSION PROGRAM IN REDUCING MOTHER TO CHILD HIV/AIDS

CHAPTER ONE
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV refers to the transmission of HIV
from an HIV-positive woman to her child during pregnancy, labor (also called
childbirth and delivery) or breastfeeding (through breast milk), mother-to-child
transmission of HIV is also called perinatal transmission of HIV. MTCT is by far the
most common way that children become infected with HIV (90%).Pregnant women with HIV receive HIV medicines during pregnancy and childbirth to reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. In some situations, a woman with HIV may have a scheduled cesarean delivery (sometimes called a Csection) to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV during delivery. Babies born to women with HIV receive HIV medicine for 6 weeks after birth. The HIV medicine reduces the risk of infection from any HIV that may have entered a baby’s body during childbirth (AIDSinfo, 2015).

Effective PMTCT programs require women and their infants to receive a cascade of
interventions including uptake of antenatal services and HIV testing during pregnancy, use of antiretroviral treatment (ART) by pregnant women living with HIV, safe childbirth practices and appropriate infant feeding, uptake of infant HIV testing and other post-natal healthcare services. Without treatment, the likelihood of HIV passing from mother-to-child is 15 to 45%. However, antiretroviral treatment (ART) and other effective interventions for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) can reduce this risk to below 5% (WHO, 2014).

Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV has been at the
forefront of global HIV prevention activities since 1998, following the success of the
short-course zidovudine and single-dose nevirapine clinical trials. These offered the
promise of a relatively simple, low-cost intervention that could substantially reduce
the risk of HIV transmission from mother to baby. Research and program experience
over the past ten years has demonstrated newer and more effective ways to prevent
new paediatric infections, particularly in high-burden, low-resource settings (WHO,
2010).

Statement of the Problem
Globally Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) accounts for over 90% of new HIV
infections among children (De Cock, 2000). In Nigeria, the risk for infants born to
women living with HIV and be infected is 5-10% infants infected during pregnancy,
10-15% infants infected during labor and delivery, 5-20% infants infected during
breast feeding, and overall 20-45% of infants will be HIV infected if there is no
intervention (MoHSW, 2012). Despite the efforts made by the government in reducing MTCT of HIV, but still the risk of children being affected by their infected mother is very big. The global target is to reduce new HIV infections via MTCT by 90% by 2015 (Avert, 2016), but we are still far in reaching this target, and in so saying, children are still affected and many more are in a danger to be infected with this disease either during pregnancy, child birth or breast feeding, and that just translate on the lost future man power, leaders, politicians and scientists that this nation really needs for its development. It is therefore the focus of this study to assess the effectiveness of PMTCT program in reducing HIV/AIDS to children.

How to get complete project materials


Step 1: make payment of N2,000 to the below bank details


NAME:                       TITUS AYANI SOLA
BANK:                       FIRST BANK PLC
ACCT NO:                  3111741042
ACCOUNT TYPE:       SAVINGS
AMOUNT:                  N2000

STEP 2: AFTER PAYMENT SEND THE PROJECT TOPIC AND YOUR EMAIL ADDRESS TO 08063666753

Updated: 4th November 2018 — 7:32 pm

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