EFFECTS OF PUBLIC EXAMINATION ON SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS CERTIFICATE
1.1 Background to the study
Teaching and learning is the purpose of all established schools in the world. More importantly is that teachers and learners should be properly accommodated to facilitate the teaching and learning that goes on in any institution. This is the essence of the school plant and facilities (Alimi, 2004).
For the last decades the world has seen new forms of international cooperation forming around the pledge for education for all (EFA) initiatives. In spite of the fact that this initiative is a well intentioned move to resolve the world’s education challenges, others have called for a rather regional and national approach to solving educational challenges, particularly in Africa (Strutt and Kepe, 2010).
Damien (2010) claimed that school institutional factors tend to be the space interpretation and physical expression of the school examination performance of students. Considering the relationship between academic resources and students’ academic performance, teacher’s qualification and adequate facilities may be determinants of assessing academic performance of students (Damien, 2010).
Maicibi (2003) adds by agreeing that human factors have come to be the most important resource arguing that when the right quantity and quality of the human resources is brought together, it can manipulate other resources towards realizing the organizational goals and objectives.
One of the major dilemmas in educational creation today is the teacher excellence puzzle: while there is clear indication that teacher quality is a key determinant of student learning, little is known about which definite observable characteristics of teachers can account for this impact (Rockoff, 2004; Rivkin, Hanushek, and Kain 2005; Aaronson, Barrow and Sander, 2007). In particular, there is little evidence that those individualities most often used in hiring and salary decisions, namely teachers’ education and practices, are essential for teacher quality. Practically the only attribute that has been shown to be more repeatedly extensively associated with student achievement is teachers’ academic skills measured by scores on accomplishment tests (Wayne, 2003; Eide, et al. 2004; Hanushek, 2006).
Statement of the problem
Morogoro Municipality in particular, secondary schools, irrespective of ownership is expected to function in compliance with the achievement of the national education objectives. To this end, students are expected to get grade A (division one) in the final examination as this determines the quality of output of secondary schools but as indicated on table 1.1 there shows there is a problem that needs to be searched and realized.
The government, parents and other stakeholders in education have continued to condemn the poor academic performance of students in CSEE examinations in Morogoro Municipality. NECTA (2012) indicated that out of the 456,137 students who were tested for CSEE in 2012, 240,903 got zero. This poor performance is worse in public schools than in private schools in Morogoro Municipality that is why the researcher concentrated on public schools. Private schools tend to own private development of their institutions where they don’t seek government’s
intervention on the growth or facilitation of the school. Public schools management belongs to the government. The schools seek funds to maintain their operations from the government which has a high percentage of failure due to
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