IMPACT OF CLASSROOM USE OF DIGITAL TOOLS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS BIOLOGY
Background of the Study
The 21st century is characterized by advancement in science and technology for Nigeria to realize accelerated development in the 21stcentury; she needs qualitative science education in the school especially in the semi- secondary school. Over the last two decades, there have been repeated calls for reform and innovation aimed at improving science education in Nigeria. This suggest that there issues in science education in Nigeria that need to be improve upon. Science is an organization body of knowledge in form of concept, laws, theories, and generalization. Urevbu, (2001) defines science as a study of nature and natural phenomena in order to discover their principle and laws. Science has three interrelated aspect: content, process and attitude. Content can be separated into physical, life and earth science process involves the fifteen inquiring skills proposed by American association for the advancement of science (AAAS) which include observing, classifying experimenting, and measuring, inferring, organizing data. Attitude concern openness and observing (Omoifo,2012) education is the total process of human learning by which knowledge is impacted, faculties training and skill developed (Urevbu,2001) science education is the field of study concerned with producing a scientifically literate society, it acquaint students with basic knowledge skill and attitude needed for future work in science related field. Although there are several issues in science education in Nigeria which will be discussed as follows.
Inadequate teaching has been advanced as one of the problems of science education in Nigerian senior secondary schools (Omoifo,2012), Quality science teaching is effective science teaching, Effective teaching occurs when student learns and achieve in any scientific goals and not just been able to repeat scientific knowledge (Omoifo,2012). During effective learning, student learn how to learn, student develop conceptual understanding and thinking, skill, thus helping student change their initiative, everyday ways of explaining the world around them to incorporate scientific concept and ways of thinking into their personal frameworks. Therefore student’s ability to solve problem and perhaps enhanced learning occurs. According to Okafor,2007, quality teaching lies at the teacher’s capacity to transform written knowledge into forms that are pedagogically powerful and yet adaptive to the student’s abilities and backgrounds. (Ayodele,2006) identified the use of inappropriate non-effective teaching methodology as a major factor hindering student understanding and achievement in science. The teaching and learning of science do not require theoretical and lecture appropriate. (Onose, 2009) posited that many experience teachers teach in abstraction, thereby making science lesson boring and the students find it difficult to grasp scientific concept, skill, and principles. (Adulahi 2007 And Ogbeda 2010), observe that most emphasized theory rather practical aspect of science subject and most of them lack adequate knowledge of subject matter and the competence to deliverer. In addition, they stressed the teaching of science has been reduced to a descriptive exercise through the use of lecture method and very little inquiry. Although the national policy of education (1998), emphasized the activity based and child-centered learning, most science lesson are of the traditional lecture. There are few classrooms with demonstration and when in use it is often teacher’s demonstration which make student passive. There are also few traditional hands-on (practical) classes. Our science classes are yet to be structured guided and student directed.(Omoifo2012).
Poor quality of science teacher in terms of adequate knowledge and pedagogical skill is another factor identified to influence student performance. The teacher’s academic qualification and knowledge of subject matter, competencies and skills, and the commitment of teacher have a great impact on the teaching and learning process. A science teacher is anyone who teaches science, science teacher in Nigeria are prepared mainly at college of education and faculties of education of different institutions. Achieving the goals of science education required qualified and highly scientifically literate teachers (Okureme2003) posited that an effective science teacher should be a master of his subject as well as grounded in method of teaching and be able to relate the science concept to real life experience. (Adu-elphallic and Boulaoudel997) conceived such teacher are those who understand the concept, principle, theories and processes of science and are aware of the complex relationship between science, technology and society, such teachers more importantly must develop an understanding of the nature of science this is important because the portion of scientific knowledge science teachers choose to teach and how they carryout the instruction present a particular view of the nature of science to their student (Omoifo2012) the teacher knowledge base for effective science teaching is very important in that they are to help the student completely understand the content and underlying philosophy of science this has long stressed and culmination in recent emphasis on teacher preparation programmed that will produce sound and effective scientifically literate teachers. Different studies showed that the most important resource input in the school that predicts student achievement is teacher quality and effective teacher will have student with good test score (Dahar, Dahar And Faize,2011).
Academic qualification is a very important quality of a teacher. Academically qualified teacher has move authentic knowledge about the relevant subject than the academically less qualified teacher has Nigeria science teacher. (Molnar 2002), reported some studies in which student taught by certified teachers consistently out score those taught by uncertified teachers, he posited that a poor trained teacher will likely produce a poor doctor, engineers, architect, fellow teacher and the like. Teachers experience is a time spend by a teacher in the teaching profession. With the passage of time teachers get command of their subject and become competent in the art of teaching through experience. In other words teachers experience improves the teaching skill and methodologies adopted. The basic skill and ability of the teaching learning process are developed in a teacher through professional qualification. Professional qualification can be categorized into per-service and in-service professional qualification. The national policy on education (2004) in section6:70b state that the qualification for entry into the teaching profession shall be the certificate in Nigeria (NCE). (Omayuli2009)posited that most of the science teacher are not professionally trained to the extent that an engineer is recruited to teach mathematics, physic, and chemistry rather specially actually trained to teach the subjects. So also teacher salary is very important as a predictor of student achievement because it has a capacity to uplift the other aspect of teacher quality. If a teacher gets a suitable salary that covers the basic living costs, he/she may be able to live comfortably and thus be more effective as he is motivated to use his abilities competencies and skills. Poor remuneration affect the morale of teacher distracts and hinder their commitment and effectiveness. Over the years, the interplay of politics and economics on teacher training policies led to some degree of compromise in admission requirements consequently, a large proportion of what we have today as trained science teacher are professionally incompetent. This fact prompted (Aluede2003) to say that the general deterioration and collapse of the educational system have resulted in a guild of teacher who is unqualified and even uncommitted to leading the learners to expected destination. (Odia and Omnonfonwan2007) opined that the teacher training institution have trenched to produce teacher that are inadequate in term of knowledge of subject matter and pedagogic skill. The quality of teachers is dependent on the nature of their preparation and training in term of in service education and training is a continuous ongoing process for teacher throughout their professional life. It may be provided at any time between joining the service until retirement. (Okhiku2005) summarized in-service training as all the activities, planned the structured engaged skill for the efficient execution of the function for which he was employed. As noted by (Ajayi and Okhiku2005), teachers are not finished product even after the completion of a preparation of a pre-service programme service. Science teacher are faced with the challenges of meeting with new innovation of new in science. Also in-service training shall be developed as an integral part is continuing teacher education and also take care of all inadequacies.
Lack of ideal resources for science teaching and learning in Nigeria schools has been a major issue of concern. It is well known facts that the quality of education a student receives largely depends on or the quality of teaching and learning resources provided. Teaching and learning resources are all the things used by the teacher during teaching aid understanding and make teaching successful and effective. Due to the facts that majority of school lack the essential resources for impacting the knowledge of science concepts to students, many study learn little science, learning trend should to be by route and many student find science not interesting and boring (Ogunmade2006). The teacher student’s interactions in many sciences classroom are not healthy because of lack of adequate resources. In most of our school, there are not facilitate for the teachers to demonstrate phenomena, let alone allow the student to have opportunities for finding out things for themselves (Audu and Oghogho 2006). The situation in many science classes in Nigeria is nothing to write about. In many schools there are no laboratory, some schools merely have empty room labelled laboratory. Students rarely have hand-on, mind-on experiences, few days to science practical examination, some schools acquires science equipment for teacher demonstration to student. This cannot make for effective learning and eventually results in poor achievement (Omoifo 2012). The few available ones are not properly maintained, protected and care for. (Ogunmade 2006) stated that majority of student do not have text book and most of the schools do not have libraries and where they have one,the textbook in the libraries are out dated.
Biology as the science of life is offered in all senior secondary schools in Nigeria which attract the greatest patronage of both science oriented and Art based (Nwosu 2016Urerbu (2001) pointed out that the teaching of Biology is important because it equips the student to student to comprehend the world around them and equip them the necessary skills to build a progressive society. (Nwosu 2005) observe that Biology provide a platform for teaching student to develop their ability to apply science concept and principles in solving everyday life problem. With knowledge explosion all over the world, the internet biological knowledge has also expanded. There are advance recorded in field such as Biochemistry, physiological, Ecology, Genetics and molecular biology that have made the subject a central focus in most human activities including problems like food scarcity, pollution, population, radiation, disease health hygiene, family life, management and consideration of natural resources as well as Biotechnology and Ethics .
The term biology is derived from two Greek words bio and logos which means life and study respectively. Biology therefore means the study of life or study of living thing. According to stone et al (1985) biology is define as a scientific study of living organism. It is therefore a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organism including their structure, function, growth, origin, evaluation and taxonomy.
Effective teaching of biology is a process by which a biology teacher adopt all the possible method used in teaching in the classroom to make sure that student understand biology and able to respond positively during assessment or to produce a good result. Teacher effectiveness is exhibited in the teaching method, classroom management the material as well as the way student are being handled a good teacher always bears in mind the individual differences of the student while presenting the lesson and frequently check the student’s understanding of his or her point to make sure that they are getting of understanding his lesson, this also include the ability of the teacher to answer question asked by the student, having knowledge about his or her subject matter and ability to show student how to conduct appropriate research.
Effective teaching is crucial, in order for student to reach educational success in and outside classroom setting, therefore, there has been some factor militating the challenge of effective teaching and learning in biology in Nigerian.
- Unqualified biology teacher: in appropriate training background of biology teacher and qualification of the biology teacher are major factor that militate against effective teaching of biology because some biology teacher in some senior secondary school did not undergo enough training to enable them get skills, qualities and enough knowledge of the subject matter and how to impact the knowledge to the student.
- Poor method of teaching biology in senior secondary schools for teaching to be effective one must use different method of teaching. According to (eke2001), teaching is effective if only it produces or yields desire result; the ability of the teacher to adapt to different situation are produced a good result in the classroom is a mark of teaching effectiveness. When the following are used teaching of biology can be effective according to (Oforkansi2008) defined activities method as a method whereby the student learn through active involvement rather than passive or being at the receiving end. Activity method encourage student to participate actually during the lesion the teaching at the same time.(Oforkansi2008), discovery means finding out, exploration, manipulation and experimentation are components scientific enquiry that help one to discover. These approaches demand that the teacher create the problem and allow the student to find answer for themselves. Enquiry involve active participate by the student rather than transmit a preconceived notion about situations.
- Inadequate supply of biology equipment: in some schools many laboratories, equipment like microscope, glass tube, beaker, slide, bone of vertebrate, chart of different animal. Digital tools (projectors, visual media, computer, cameras) animal development, system, organ etc. are not adequate for the student in learning of biology. Biology is a science subject which is all about practical and also when combined with other science subject one will be able to study course like medicine, nursing, pharmacy etc. in higher institution teacher may be competent enough and have all the qualities to impact the knowledge to the student but to the obsolete and insufficient availability of biological equipment the aim is defeated.
Teacher’s attitude toward the teaching of biology: The teacher personality such as the way the teacher walks, talks, reacts to issues, codes of conduct and dressing code has become another factor which leads to the ineffective teaching and learning of biology in a great way. (Enwieme2010) continuous to affect the effectiveness of teaching of biology.(Oforkansi 2008) opinion that personal qualities do not only enhance teaching and learning but also promotes the tone of the school as well as profession. Ineffective of teaching of biology in Nigeria could be due to several reason such as classroom management, communication, teacher qualification, supply of biology equipment, teacher personality, negligence of seminar and workshop by the biology teacher, inadequate illustration and practical aspect of biology is another factors infrastructural facilities and absence of laboratories etc.
Evaluation is define as the process of gathering valid information on attainment of educational, objectives, analyzing and fashioning information to aid judgment on the effectiveness of teaching or educational programme. A popular method of evaluating what goes on during actual teaching is student evaluation of teacher. This involve although teacher evaluation cannot be based solely on this technique, it direct observer and could reasonably evaluation classroom on interaction if asked the right question.
There is a worldwide concern that our educational systems are outdated and fallen to promote the necessary skills that will adequately prepare our future. The previous future generation motivate to study was greatly based on sense of duty. While younger generation have different motivational profile, in their lives interest emotion and engagement matters much more. The margin social practical of new generation are always evolving as the state of digital communication. Nowadays, education undergoes the great progress when the overhead projector with slide was the latest equipment is formed at school has been reached, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) are working through the school. ICT integration is tropical requirement of everyday light and plays an important role in the society globalization. There is no reason to assume that a development of ICT will be slower in the future. In contract, new era was emerged at an increasingly faster pace and we will only hope that they are going to be developed by Europe. We need to take care of our future by designing innovation and engaging learning environment for our youth. Technology in many forms is expanding rapidly in our society and there is a push for schools to keep up with this technology, which include computers, digital media and scientific tools. It is becoming increasingly important to expose student to technology, to prepare them for life in the new world. Technological illiteracy is a school that employee seek and many jobs will require the use of computer and other equipment and so, student will need to be prepare to use them and to be familiar with them by introducing more digital tools into schools, student will be better prepared for adult life. Furthermore, American student lack behind student in other developing nations in science (National Center for Education Statistic 2012), if digital tools help students learn, they may be able to catch up with other student in other countries.
Statement of the Problem
Many schools and classroom did not implement it. In our country today, there is a general fall in the standard of students’ academic performances in biology in our senior secondary schools. Bello-imam and the (Buzor2010) unanimously agree that through the internet, scholars can share information as members of the global village of which the convergence of computers and televisions is creating new media, altering the way society learns, thus, usage of the agent of globalization has not been effective among students for their academic work. Many factors have been attributed to it; some people are of the opinion that is the teacher method of impacting knowledge, to others the tools used in impacting the knowledge while some others are of different opinion.
With the reason for the lack of technology, it is necessary for teachers to learn how to use digital tools and implement it in the classroom. It is important for schools to receive the funding they need to catch up to the rest if the society. Even if the usage of digital tools is as simple as computer animation, it can improve students’ learning. The review of several study investigated the problem of digital tools which are the lack of appropriates incentives, the dominate culture of teaching practice that does not value evidence based educational research the lack of pedagogical imagination and training, lack of fund to provide students with digital tools, lack of enough time, lack of institutional support, lack of human capital(teachers competences) and institutional inertia. Additional reasons provided were not structured into the curriculum, materials, syllabus, not appropriate to the content of the class, and could not improve the learning, may not be lack of technological experts and motivation that is enhancing the adoption of digital tools but rather a conflict between the affordance of digital tools.
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