RELEVANCE OF RURAL URBAN MIGRATION ON RURAL AREAS IN EKITI STATE
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
There have been rapid increase of youths movements from rural area to urban centres, no one is in doubt today of the fact the rate at which people (especially, the youths) move from rural area to urban centres is affecting the lives of the rural dwellers. Nigeria is a developing country; in fact, she is at the threshold of being a developed nation. On this note it is wise to be acquainted with the meaning of the world “migration”.
Migration according to Udo (1980) defined migration as the permanent or semi-permanent change in residence from one administrative unit (district, country, province, state or country) to another. And it is usually considered to be an economic man’s reaction to socio-economic differentials between regions. Migration has become an important factor influencing population dynamics in a geographical area. Fertility and mortality determines the rate of natural population increase in any locality. The overall size of the population such an area depend on the pattern of migration. Population movements are often responsible for observable sudden changes in population size in many locality. It is however, pertinent to note that migration is an instrument to the solution of many social and economic problems. As a socio-economic act, migration may not be of interest in itself other than in the result of its effect, but it does often gives rise to problems as well as providing solutions.
My people from rural area have been moving to urban centres. Rural urban has attracted many people simply because of white collar jobs, education, change of environment, climate or whether condition etc. the rural urban migration in ora clan can be seen as a spontaneous human effort to achieve balance between population and resources. It is natural phenomenon which produces demographic social and economic interaction that reduces some of the irregularities of nature i.e. people wants to move from a place where there are no socio amenities (rural), to where there are socio amenities (cities). According to Lawai (1983). The implications of this movement is that while most of our urban centres suffers from over population of people and activities, rural areas are often under populated. There are two factors responsible for this movement from rural area to urban centres. These are the “push” and the “pull” factors.
Push factors: This factor causes the forwards movement of people from rural to urban centres. While the pull factor, it directed or draw people towards itself e.g. education, white collar job and among others. The most affected people in this rural urban migration are the educated youths who are unable to obtain a suitable job in a rural area.
Rural-urban migration has a dual impact on the individual as well as the community either directly or indirectly. It is through the contribution of successful migrants that most important projects in ora clan have been made possible. This fact can be buttressed by the financial support given to gigantic project like the building of community school and village town hall in ora. It is against this introductory background of the study that the researcher has intended to examine how rural-urban migration has affected the socio-economic development of rural settlement with particular reference to
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