EFFECT OF HOME VARIABLES ON WRITING PERFORMANCE IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL EKITI STATE.
Background to the Study
Language can be defined as the set of process or set of processes used to ensure there is agreement between the sender and the receiver for meaning assigned to the symbols and the schema for combining the use for each communication. The symbol themselves although typically not the accompanying non-verbal activity are usually described as words. The schema for combining them is usually described as grammar, Oyedeji (2003).
There are two further consideration that are discussed here in anticipation of many readers comments, the language of animal and the metal-language used in this essay. Firstly, if investigation support a hypothesis that animal of any particular species send and receive unique messages then according to this definition they are using language.
Secondly, when considering, for example a mathematics topic such as the development of real number system, one works with a deductible system of logic starting with a newer un-defined terms and unproven axioms. These are the basis of the language of the system being created and are stated in a meta-language chosen by the author of the system. The definition for language as stated in English which is also used by the meta-language by philosophers among readers (Johnson, 2008).
Language is a means of communication between members of the public in the form of symbol of the sound provided by means of said human language. Second language is a communication system that uses symbols vocal (speech sound) which are arbitrary, (Kerif, 2005).
Owen (2006) also describes the language as a socially acceptable code or conventional system for delivering concepts through the use of should and combinations of desires, symbols are governed by the provisions.
Language starts from home and what makes a home is marriage. The word “marriage” is derived from Middle English, marriage which first appeared in 1250-1300 CE. This in turn derived from old french marier (to marry) and ultimately Latin marita re meaning to provide with a husband or wife and maritairemeans to get married. Marriage is also called matrimony or wedlock is a socially or ritually recognized union between spouses that established right and obligation between them, between them and their children and this in turn makes up a family which serves as one important agent of socialization. Therefore language start from home, when a child is being brought into this world, it will get to a stage whereby the child will start learning how to speak language and this does not start miraculously, rather it start from the environment which the child found himself and this is family.
Family serves as an important agent of socialization. Socialization occurs throughout our life but some of the most important socialization occurs in childhood. Individual socialization is a lifelong process determined by many factors among the social factors that affect individual people in particular are social group with which a person comes into contact with. The most important social group to influence individual socialization however is family. Family provides initial human behavioral pattern in an orientation and initial inter-personal relationship, there is no better way to start than to talk about the role of family in our social development as family is usually considered to be the most important agent of socialization. Infant are completely dependent on others to survive. Our parent or those who play the parent role are responsible for teaching the children so many things.
Family plays a key role in developing child’s language in the sense that when parents speak to their children, they learn language by listening to the parents’ speech in the world around them. Every parent speak to their children they are modeling language. Spending time with the child, playing and talking with them helps develop and facilitate his language development through interaction, Libadmin (2014).
According to (PSB) website, parent also strengthen the bond between them and their children and younger ones by regular conversation, children learn best from live speaker’s rather than recorded voices. Television and computer have their place, when combined with parent interaction. Children acquired language through interaction not only with their parents and other adults but also with other children. All normal children who grew up in normal household surrounded by conversation will acquire the language that is being used around them. And it is just easy for a child to acquire two or more languages at the same time, as long as they are regularly interacting with speakers of those languages. Language learning process for every child, the family is the primary agency of socialization. It is here that the child develops an initial sense of self. A child learn language from which is the family and continue when he gets to the stage of going to school. Family plays a remarkable role in developing child’s language, parent are child’s educators. A child’s family and home environment has a long impact on child’s language.
Home variables can be defined as various characteristics of a statistical being observed that may affect the academic performance of children when it comes to writing skills. Therefore researchers have found out some variables, some of which includes.
Socio-economic Status: This factor affect children writing performance, “Compton” who states that children from high socio-economic background tend to perform more better than that of children from low socio-economic background. “Compton” also stress further that children from high class people in the society such as doctors, lawyers, engineers, politicians and teachers tend to perform better in writing skills because they are been provided with necessary materials needed to carry out effective writing skills, Lilly (2008).
Environmental Factor: It is an indisputable fact that home environment/background exerts considerable influence on the development and academic performance of the child. The home belong to the first and major agency of socialisation and has great influence and bearing on the development of a child, environmental factor is very important in a child’s academic life. A child home environment affect his/her degree of achievements academically. Many of the distinctive characteristics of a child’s home in relation to his existence in school on writing performance. Students from home where people who are surrounded by the environment were academically standard and also good in reading and writing, such people tend to guide a child’s writing skills whenever he/she want to deviate from normal routine which makes writing skills to be effective and perfect, environment influences a child’s writing performance. A child who is exposed to an environment where by people who live in the environment are illiterate, such a child may face difficulty in writing performance, Morizon (1975).
Parental Attitudes: Parent attitude and support for children’s writing skills is very essential in the life of a child and academic performance. Parental involvement in their child’s literacy practices positively affect academic performance level of education if parent reflect in the child’s writing skill, an educated parent to guide a child writing skill by correcting the child’s mistakes and guide him where he doesn’t seem to get it right the attitude of this and of parent will reflect positively on the child’s learning skill than the attitude of a parent who do not bother to know how the child is doing academically. A parent who cares about his child’s educational career will tend to monitor the child in all aspects of his academics, such a parent are bound to know if the child is performing excellently in his/her writing ability compared to a parent who does not even bother to cross check his child’s notebook whenever he comes back from school, such attitude towards a child won’t help the situation of the child’s academically, Hams and Goofball (2007) Flori and Buchanan (2004).
Mother’s Tongue Interference: Mother’s tongue influence a child’s writing performance for instance, a child who grew up in the family where Yoruba is their native language and is been used as a basis for everyday communication. Such a child would transfer this language on his written phenomena and this could make this child pass through a lot of difficulties in order to fashion out effective writing skill compared to a child who grew up in the family where English is being used as their basis of everyday communication because a Yoruba accent cannot be used to carry out effective English writing skill. There would be a problem; mother’s Tongue influences a child’s writing skill either positively or negatively, Duwole (2008).
Gender and Writing Performance: Most studies shows that average girls do better than boys, researchers revealed that standardized achievement test also shows that females are better at spelling and perform better on test of literacy, writing and general knowledge, this research therefore revealed that female have upper hand in writing skills than male, Jacob (2002).
Writing is the ability to write something, idea in your mind to give idea or opinion in writing by using pencil, pen and felt tip, marker in the media paper, store or the other. The human learn how to write the idea or opinion in their mind. In school, the student’s learn how to make good writing and learn to convert their idea and opinion they were trained to make confident from their writing. According to an expert “writing is frequently useful preparation for some other activities in particular when students write sentences as preamable to discussion activities. We can conclude that learning can help the students to involve thinking, composing and teaching students in making the use of standard written form, Harmmer (2004)
Supemo (2006) argues that writing is a series of activities going on and involves several phases, the preparatory phase, the content development and review as well as revision of improvement.
Writing can be used as indirect means of communication to others to convert information. Activities are not easy to write because writing should be able to produce something new and can give you an idea or ideas to the reader through writing, Jonah (2006).
Nation (2009) states that writing is an activity that can usually be prepare for by work in skill of listening, speaking and reading. This preparation can make it possible for words that have been used receptively to come into productive use. Writing is a person’s ability to communicate information and ideas to someone, public, government. Also writing is not only an activity of sentences but also when people write they should organize some interesting stuffs which are experiencing or ideas in written form.
Writing again is one of the four modes of expressing language, listening, speaking, reading and writing. It is an autographic representation of speech. But the task of a writer is not just as simple as representing reality. The ability to write pre-suppose some level of morphological, lexical and syntactic knowledge as well as idiomatic knowledge meanwhile, the knowledge of idioms, syntax and morphology alone does not generate the ability to write well because writing involves much more that constructing grammatical sentences needs to be cohesive that is, they have to be concerned in ways that can be followed by readers, Leki (2005).
Writing seems to be the most difficult of other skills even among native speakers of language. Writing is therefore a crucial skill, yet every year large number of students graduate from secondary schools unable to write at the basic level required by colleges and employee, Perin (2007).
Learning to write is uniquely challenging, writing require the mastery and concurrent use of complex array of language skill from vocabulary and spelling to the ability to organize and convey ideas. Indeed the intricacies of writing make it one of the most highest forms of human expression. Researchers has come about some problem faced by the students of junior secondary school, children are encountering difficulties in writing some of which are; formation of letters to organizing their ideas, to using correct grammar, punctuation and spelling.
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