EFFECT OF FAMILY AS PREDICTOR OF STUDENTS MOTIVATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOL
Background of the Study
The family is the main social environment for the child. In some countries such as Australia, Malaysia, United States of America, Uganda and Nigeria some of the socialization that takes place informally is now undertaken by modern secondary organization of which family is an aspect. Murdock in Akubue and Okolo (2008) defined family as a social group characterized by common residence, economic cooperation and reproduction. Family, the author continued, includes adult of both sexes two of whom maintain socially approved sexually cohabiting adults. Murdock concluded that family is a universal institution and everywhere performs four functions as economic, reproductive (sexual), educational and socialization functions. Carter and Goldrick, in Onyia and Anichie (2002) define the family as a small social system made up of individuals related to each other by reason of strong reciprocal affections and loyalties, compromising a permanent household (or cluster of household) that persists over years and decades. Members, according to the authors, enter through birth, adoption marriage, and leave only by death.
The conception about family is varied depending on cultural and geographical perspective. In Nigerian context, a family consists of the husband, wife, children and the extended families of the couple (Owo, 1994). Nwobi (1997) defined the family as a bio-social group, a network of persons intimately held together by a bond of social and kinship relationship or blood relationships. Nwobi goes on to state that in the Nigerian context, at least because of the phenomenon of extended family system, the family is made up of the married couple, their offspring and immediate kit and kin, brothers and sisters of the bridegroom and his parents, relatives – in – laws and any other dependent, so that the concept of nuclear families is a product of colonial experience in most parts of Africa. In the context of this study, family will be taken to be made up of members who live together under one roof having a single household, and united together by ties of marriage, blood or adoption. The family is a fundamental social institution and its particular forms differ substantially from place to place. Thus, there is nuclear and extended family. According to Adjaero (1996), nuclear family refers to a group of people who have biological and institutionalized social roles to each other and develop values and beliefs that inform sets of expectation and roles which are specific to them. Extended family consists of nuclear or polygamous families plus uncles, cousins, ground parents and others. In all these type of families either single or dual performs interrelationship roles or functions to keep the family growing. According to Adjaero (1996), the functions include the establishment of emotional, social and economic bonds between spouses and their children, procreation and sexual relations between the spouses, giving names status to the children provision of basic care of children, elderly and relatives with disabilities or sick ones, socialization and education of children and even of the parent, protection of the family members, emotional care and recreation of the family members, exchange of goods and services among others.
Statement of the Problem
The family prepares future citizens, nurtures and sustains adults engaged in day to day activities of the society. In Ekiti State, family, units are known for large family size as family heads utilize advantages of such in the farm work. This is because the zone is known for mass agricultural production. Children in most cases are deprived of going to school in order to help out in farm work where they are allowed, they are left to tend for themselves educationally and this often leads to abandoning of academic pursuits in search of funds that can see them through academically. This goes a long way to affect their academic performance. In Ekiti State most family opt for family size such as large as against small, dual as against single, and extended as against nuclear. The rational for these options is to have children who will help in farm work. A funny aspect of this family unit is that schooling is taken to be secondary concern of most families. As children are not provided for academically their performance is equally affected. This implies that they are not motivated academically. As children are not motivated academically, whether it is as a result of family factors or not need to be determined.
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