THE EFFECTS OF USING INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN TEACHING BUSINESS STUDIES IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS (A CASE STUDY OF IKERE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA)
The effect of instructional materials in promoting students’ academic performance and teaching and learning in educational development is indisputable. The teaching of Business studies in Nigerian secondary schools needs to be properly handled. Business contributes to the nation’s economic development, hence, the need to be taught thoroughly if it is to meet the educational and economic development. Moreso, that Business studies is one of the subjects in Junior Secondary Schools; and as a vocational subject, it cannot be taught effectively without the use of appropriate instructional materials (Ajayi, 2008). The curriculum content of the junior secondary school levels consists of three major concepts of production, protection and economics. Learning by doing was emphasized in the curriculum so that the students should be able to produce business products for themselves and their community. A series of activities were suggested in the curriculum to ensure the development of psychomotor skills in business studies by the students. Students’ achievement should be continuously assessed through various forms of tests and during field work and individual assessment should be carried out for activities in business orientation while group assessment be restricted to performance in business activities. Hence for effective and positive production in any establishment, there must be enough working tools to be used by the personnel (Oyedun, 2010).
The teacher alone cannot provide all the needed condition for an effective teaching and learning process, other supporting materials should be provided. The students learn better when most of the senses are appealed to the instruction and use of instructional materials in business studies education has added a new dimension in the positive promotion of the teaching and learning process. It provides the much need sensory experiences needed by the learners for an effective and meaningful behavioural change. Instructional materials are meant to improve the quality of education for effective academic performance of business studies students in schools. The performance of the students on the intended learning outcome provide the validation loop on the success of the interaction and instruction (Bakare, 2006).
Teachers normally dodge the use of instructional materials in most of their teaching topics, while they try to do all they could during their teaching in their course of study; even though some of these materials are not usually available in the schools for teachers’ use. But most of these materials are only made available for students’ use for the purpose of examination. These materials are those that have not been seen or used before by the students. “In most of the secondary schools, instructional materials are not judiciously used as it ought to be. Many teachers teach in abstract without using the required materials” (Ibrahim, 2010).
In making use of any instructional materials, such materials must be previewed that is, having full knowledge of the material; prepare the environment where it will be used; prepare audience by means of making sure that the materials to be used will attract attention, arouse, motivate and provide the rationale that could be used in the beginning, middle or end. The effectiveness of utilizing appropriate instructional materials in teaching and learning of business studies is not void of quality instructor. In order to give quality education to the younger generation, there is need for employment of more competent, experienced and qualified business studies teachers.
The need to identify the suitable instructional materials, by which students can be made to comprehend the extent of the subject easily and intelligibly, is the focus of this study. An indepth look at the secondary schools business studies programmes revealed that there is the need for improving all phases of the programmes (IMAA, 2014). For example, there is need for the introduction and use of instructional materials for use in the classrooms. The broad aim of any good training materials are to induce and support the learning process that leads to improve on-the-job performance through affecting changes in the knowledge, attitudes, skills and practices of the learners. With the above reasons, it is worth investigating the effect of instructional materials in the teaching of Business studies in junior Secondary Schools, for better performance of students in their examination and chosen career in the field of business. If instructional materials are used in Secondary Schools, it would help improving the teaching and learning and hence the academic performance of students in Business studies effectively.
Background of the study
This study was carried out to find out the effect of instructional resource on the academic achievement of secondary school students. Many authors have written on the use and effectives of instructional materials or teaching aid to enhance teaching for desired social and behavioural change. More specifically, it was emphasized that the use of instructional material is a sine qua-no in effecting behavior of learners of every field i.e. prerequisite requirement or an essential condition.
However, it is noteworthy that teaching aids are important catalysts for social re-engineering and change in learners. It is obvious that effective learning cannot be well accomplished without the use of instructional materials.
Instructional materials possess some inherent advantages that make them unique in teaching. For one thing, they provide the teacher with interesting and compelling platform for conveying information since they motivate learning to have interest in learning process. Also, by providing opportunities for private study and reference, the learner’s interest and curiosity are increasing stimulated.
Instructional material/media resources that help to make teaching more meaningful and understandable, these include audio-visual, auditory materials and a host of others.
There is no gain saying the fact that a good teacher will perform better in a situation where he/she had various materials to make his task easier.
Kolade et al (2013) opined that these teaching aids help to develop communication ability by reducing ambiguity, More so, they observed that about 94% of what is seen is remembered when the sense have been involved.
However, the absence of instructional materials make teaching, not only time consuming; energy sapping, but a difficult task. Therefore, instructional materials have come to assume, not only an enviable position, but have been increasingly recognized as an integral and essential part of teaching.
Wales (2006) was of the opinion that the use of instructional resources would make discovered facts glued firmly to the memory of students.
Savoury (2008) also added that, a well-planned and imaginative use of visual aids in lessons should do much to banish apathy supplement in adequacy of book as well as arouse student interest by giving them something practical to see and do, and at the same time helping to train them to think things out themselves.
In his own contributions, Ogunmilade C.A (2012) has this to say, “the teacher can use instructional materials in various way to make his effort more effective in producing learners (students) who are agile, well-groomed and adequately informed”. He went further to say that “instructional materials can help to present factors and information”. It can engender interest and raise the enthusiasm of learners.
It can also help in picture and image vividly in minds and memory of learner. He concluded that instructional materials have effectively proved a useful comparison in the pursuit of aspiration, knowledge and growth.
In order to raise the quality of education, its efficiency and productivity, better learning materials are needed. Knezewich (2007) also stressed the importance of having appropriate personnel plan and adequate physical facilities to support educational effort. To this end, this project attempts to find out the adequacy or non-adequacy of instructional materials for the teaching of business education in Junior Secondary School.
Statement of the Problem
The absence of innovation in the instructional material mode used in the Junior Secondary School to implement the innovative and broad Junior Secondary Curriculum has created a gap in the educational system at the Junior Secondary School level.
This may have contributed the non-attainment of some of the Junior Secondary education objective slated in the national policy on education. The problem on the effectiveness of instructional material in teaching business study vis-à-vis team teaching instructional mode.
Many of the school authorities have very lukewarm attitudes over the provision of needed equipment required for effective business studies, especially business studies in junior secondary schools. This non-challant attitude tends to retard genuine efforts of some teachers of business studies in the secondary schools. Inspite of the emphasis being placed on business studies as one of the subjects in secondary schools, there is usually not enough time provided in the time-table for a meaningful business studies work (Adeyemi, 2000). Business studies teachers are always interested to finish the syllabus before the external examination – Junior School Certificate Examination (JSCE).
The prosecution of a functional education in relation to business studies in secondary schools still leaves much to be desired. In view of these difficulties, most teachers of business studies still resort to the theoretical method of teaching the subject. This undoubtedly, is contrary to the improvement of business studies education, which is greatly needed at this period of our development with emphasis on practical oriented learning (Mammudu, 2006). The researcher has visited a number of secondary schools as a resource person. Through these experiences, the researcher observed that most teachers in secondary schools in the state did not fully make use of instructional materials in the teaching of business studies to their students. This negligence of the effective use of the instructional facilities and materials in teaching and learning of business studies common to both the trained and untrained teachers affected the successful academic performance of students in business studies in secondary schools in Ekiti State.
The desire to embark on this research study therefore, stemmed from the fact that there is problem of poor performance of secondary school students in business studies in the state. This poor and general backwardness in business studies have been recorded for some years now by the examination bodies of Junior School Certificate Examination (JSCE) conducted by the West African Examination Council (WAEC), school promotion examinations and the special qualifying examination, conducted by the State Ministry of Education, Studies and Technology, introduced for students in junior secondary schools respectively – (Department of Statistics, Planning and Research, Ministry of Education, Ado, 2007). The statistics obtained from fifteen secondary schools in Ekiti State have indicated that there is a progressive decline in the performance of students in business studies subjects. Statistics from the various examination offices of the schools revealed that out of a total of 1,964 business studies students that registered and sat for the West African Examination Council in 2009, only 610 passed and 1,354 students failed from the 15 secondary schools – representing 31% passed and 69% failed (School Examination Offices, 2010).
Anything that saves students from performing poorly in business studies, will also save parents or guardians from wasting their hard-earned money. It may put an end to parents or guardians wasting their hard-earned money re-enrolling their wards to repeat business studies examinations which they are not guaranteed passing even after several attempts. The unusual way some business studies teachers approach the teaching of business studies has contributed to the students’ development of negative attitude to both the subjects and the teachers. Most of the secondary schools cannot meet up with the academic (practical) requirements of this subject as they lack instructional materials for adequate teaching and learning of the subject.
The central problems which are attributed to the students’ poor academic performance in business studies in secondary schools’ in Ekiti State may be due to poor usage or not using appropriate instructional materials to teach business studies, issue of class size, inability to improve on the needed facilities, equipment, technical expertise, lack of business studies laboratories, workshops, seminars, poor organisation of the few available instructional materials, business studies teachers attitudes towards the use of instructional materials, non-improvisation of instructional materials by business studies teachers and the weakness of the school administrators in finding solutions to the problems for the effect of misuse of instructional materials, all need serious attention.
The appropriate utilization of instructional materials and teaching of business studies by experienced and qualified teachers may probably be the main solution to poor performance in Business studies. In order to develop interest of the students to the study of business studies in secondary schools and the participation of business studies teachers to teach the subject as a vocational business, the researcher deem necessary for the use of appropriate instructional materials for the teaching of Business studies in junior secondary schools setting in Ekiti State in particular.
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