CHAPT ER ONE
1.1 Background of the Study
In 2005, the Ministry of Education in Nigeria announced a strategic plan for education for the subsequent twenty years, ending in 2025. One of the significant themes of this strategy was the divide between developing countries and the advanced world. The strategy also referred to the necessity of bridging the “gap‟ between the Nigerian educational system and the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in everyday life. However, despite these broad strategic aims, the strategy did not specify how these may be delivered operationally.
Prior to the development of this strategy, in the early 1980s the Ministry of Education in Nigeria developed its first ICT initiatives following a study investigating the feasibility of using computers in secondary schools –one of their most fundamental aims.
The introductions of computer education in secondary schools began in 1987 with the commencement of an introductory course in computing. However, progress in embedding ICT into wider school use was slow, and not until 1996 the teaching computer was made on an ad hoc basis, which is dependent upon local organizational ambition and plans. Despite intentions to initiate a national project to support the use of computers in schools, there was no strategy in place to support it.
Since the mid-nineties there has been an increasing trend towards more openness in ICT usage, notably the use of computers or other aspects of ICT in teaching across the curriculum. This was enhanced by the first national project to teach ICT in schools which started in four girls‟ secondary schools in 1996. This project formed the first step in implementing the government educational strategy in bridging the gap between the old education system, and the emergent needs of teaching ICT in schools. Although the term ICT was continually referenced throughout the project, it was always misused (i.e. ICT has traditionally meant simply the „use of computers‟ in Nigeria educational culture). Overall, these studies have failed to make a significant contribution in assessing a national project; however, they were the only studies that evaluated this project. This paucity of investigative detail, in fact, stimulates the researcher to investigate different aspects of the national project and the application of this project in secondary schools. In part, the motivation behind this research is borne from this -to undertake a more specific examination of the purposes, operations, difficulties, and outcomes of the application of ICT in secondary schools.
In the first place and particularly if he is dealing with young pupils, his students will imitate a bad pronunciation as exactly as they will a good one. According to Abolade and Yusuf (2005) as quoted in Ede (2010), Information and communication technology (ICT) refers to those different types of technologies which are utilized for processing, transmitting and communicating data and information. Tools such as computers, internet, interface boxes, e-mail, varieties of software and materials form important aspects of ICT. Information and communication technology relates principally to studying concepts, skills, processes and application of electronic devices.
Molony (2006) describes information Communication Technology as any Technology that enables communication and transmission of information. Beebe (2004) define Information Communication Technology as a shorthand form for computers, software, networks, satellite links and related systems that allow people to access, analyze, create, exchange and use data, information and knowledge in ways that until recently, were almost unimaginable. She opined that ICT can be used interchangeably with “internet”. De Watteville and Gilbert 2000) say that Information Communication Technology means required analysis, manipulation, storage and distribution of Information and the design and provision of equipment and software for these purposes.
1.3 Research Problem
Information and Communication Technology is no longer a new development in the lives of Nigerians. A great measure of ICT awareness is created both within and outside institutions of learning. The indispensable role of ICT in teaching and learning of sciences studies especially the oral aspect is richly acknowledged but learners are yet to benefit fully from this.
The Federal Government of Nigeria is aware of the importance of ICT in Education and therefore states as follows:
To achieve the policy objectives of education, government shall provide appropriate information and communication facilities (ICT) to ensure that the benefits of the united library permeate all levels of education in Nigeria (NPE, 2011) Policy makers and educators are aware of the need for the use of ICT as procedural strategy in sciences teaching and learning but little studies have been carried out in this respect. This project provides the necessary information to fill the gap with reference to the benefits of ICT in the teaching and learning in secondary schools.