THE INFLUENCE OF BROKEN HOME ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF ADOLESCENTS
Background of the Study
Broken home is a term used to describe a household, usually in reference to parenting, in which the family unit does not properly function according to accepted societal norms. The concept of broken homes contributed to the falling standard of education in the country. It is based on this premise that this research work dealt with the impact of broken homes and students` academic performance in secondary schools in Ekiti State.
According to Collins Advanced Dictionary of English, define home as a family unit. It’s composed of the father, mother, children, and sometimes with any other members of the extended family, it is a place where one lives with one’s family. It is an institution where each member needs care, love, comfort, and sense of security. This household might suffer from domestic violence, a dissolved marriage, drug abuse, or anything else that interferes with the upbringing of children. The phrase ‘Broken Home’ is more commonly used when either the mother or father is not part of the family due to bad circumstances, as mentioned above, which makes a child’s upbringing suffer. It is less commonly used for parents who have simply split up, and are still not in contact, and on good terms with the child. Family is the basic unit of a society. This is the most important component of a country. A home is where a family lives. It may be alternated to the word ‘house’ but a house is more appropriately referring to the material structure, whereas ‘home’ refers to the intangible things that bind together the family members. It is the immeasurable love and care that keeps together the mother, father and their children. The Family is an essential factor for a human’s whole-being, everything about a man, his background, attitude, all of his achievements, his honor and dignity, relies on the structure of the family a man lives in with. A family is composed of a father a mother and their offspring, bonded by their love for each other.
Students’ academic achievement and educational attainment have been studied within different frameworks. Many of them have a focus on pattern of education, occupation or home background (like; family income, language of the home, activities of the family and work methods), while other studies looked at it from the teachers’ variables (such as teacher’s age, experience, education, gender, etc), school variables (such as environment, structures, buildings, location, etc), students’ variables (such as attitude, self-concept, self-esteem, study habit, interest, etc) or parents’ support (such as achievement motivation of wards, parental attitudes towards education, the aspiration of parents, etc). There is evidence that parents’ educational will affect students’ academic achievement.
Academic attainment is an important parameter in measuring success of students. Observations and reports have shown that success on academic achievement has become a major task to be accomplished by students in record times poor academic performance was recorded at both the secondary and tertiary levels of education in Nigeria.
Poor performance of students at all levels of education in Nigeria has attracted much critism from all and sundry from time immemorial, the decline in the academic performance of students in integrated science had being observed by Wole Soyinka (1999), when he observed that schools in Nigeria needs restructuring, he went further to say that academic standards had fallen drastically and the quality of graduates students being produced by the nation’s schools both at the secondary and tertiary levels is questionable and subject of poor level of educational standard from secondary schools.
Poor academic performance of students has been of great concern to educationists, guidance and counselors in particular, despite all guidance programmes and counseling in schools to improve the students academic performance yet poor results (performance) were recorded yearly, it becomes necessary to find out the causes of such poor performance in integrated science in Nigeria education.
According to Grissmer (2003), pattern of education is the most important factor affecting students’ academic achievement. Taiwo (2010) submits that parents’ educational background influence the academic achievement of students. This, according to him, is because the parents would be in a good position to be perform well in education and provide the necessary materials needed by him/her. This was supported by Musgrave (2000) who said that a child that comes from an educated home would like to follow the steps of his/her family and by this, work actively in his/her studies. He said further that parents who have more than a minimum level of education are expected to have a favoured attitude to the child’s education and to encourage the child to show examples in activities of intellectual type such as reading of newspapers, magazines and journals. They are likely to have wider vocabulary by which the children can benefit and develop language fluency.
Onoch (2005) concludes that a child from a well educated family with high socio-economic status is more likely to perform better than a child from an illiterate family. This is because the child from an educated family has lot of support such as a decent and good environment for academic work, parental support and guidance, enough textual and academic materials and decent feeding. He or she is likely to be sent to good schools where well seasoned teachers will handle his/her subjects. Children’s academic achievement was found to be affected by varying family processes. Campbell and Wu (2004) said that the home environment and family processes provide a network of physical, social and intellectual forces and factors which affect the students’ learning. According to them the family’s level of encouragement, expectations, and educational activities in the home are related to socio-economic groups create different learning environments that affect the child’s academic achievement. There is no doubt that parents’ attitudes help to condition their children’s attitudes. A parent who shows complete disregard for education might have some effect upon his/her children’s educational progress. Theories with different topics such as intrinsic motivation, self-concept, attribution, goal orientation, self efficiency, and expectations have been established in previous studies. Many studies have examined the relationships among those constructs and students’ achievement.
Schunk, Pintrich and Meece (2008) affirm the fact that there is a consistent finding of motivation being related to achievement behaviours. The impact of motivation on learning by a child cannot be undermined.
Hall (2009) believes that there is a need to motivate students so as to arouse and sustain their interest in learning. He further opines that Mathematics academic achievement should be considered a continuous process until there is evidence of improvement in interest and performance of the learners in the subject.
According to Gesindee (2000), academic motivation could be seen as self-determination to succeed in academic work. He posits that the urge to achieve varies from one individual to the other, while for some individuals, the need for achievement is very high and for others it may be very low. What could be responsible for the variation could be the fact that academic motivation is believed to be developed during socialization processes and learning experiences.
The parents’ interest and encouragement have a great impact on student’s performance in the school. More so, children’s school achievement is specially accounted for parents. Habel (1986) said that the psychological makes up of a child in the school. Lankard (2005) points out that where parental encouragement is low, relatively few students regardless of their intelligence or socio-economic status levels, plan to go to college. On the other hand where parental encouragement is high even when socio-economic status and intelligence are relatively low; more students plan to go to school. They concluded that the way and manner in which the family is organized and the direction in which the family system is changing is important is this reflects on the child’s performance in school.
Statement of the Problem
There is a global awareness of the Importance of the home environment on students’ academic achievement. In Nigeria, most home are not intact as a result of issues of incompatibility of the couples, death of a parent and the quest for the oversea trips to make more money, and at times marital infidelity. This has resulted in the separation of couples and children. In some states in the federation, this is quite clear, in that most young ladies abandon their homes, and embark on oversea trips with a view to making money. Some men who travel abroad, abandon their homes and would not communicate with the families back-home so children from such homes are in dilemma, especially in terms of adjustment. Chador (2008) notes that the environment in which the students come from can greatly influence his performance in school. The effects of broken homes may impact greatly on the internal organization of the family and by extension; effect a child’s emotion, personality and academic achievement.
The children social life could also be affected because they became a problem to their society juvenile delinquency& introvert & behavioural disorder etc. that is a sociological deficiency.
The study investigated the extend lack of parental are affection an security plus discipline affects student academic achievement of students in some schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State.