1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Nigeria has witnessed insurgency from this terrorist group called Boko Haram from 2009 till date The group have unleash terror and fear in the minds of every Nigerians. There is wanton destruction of government properties, bombing of churches, Mosques and other public places, assassination of prominent individuals, burning of schools occasioned by sporadic shooting of innocent citizens. In 2011, the United State declared Boko haram as one of the terrorist organization.
However, before 2009, Nigeria also witnessed several forms of terrorism which is a deliberate and systematic use of violence to destroy, kill, maim, and intimidate the innocent in order to achieve a goal or draw national or international attention to demands which ordinarily may be impossible or difficult to achieve under normal political negotiation or on the battlefield against a government army.
Obioma (2012) noted that some of these terrorist attacks are politically motivated even though some may have other ancillary motives such as religious, economic or social. Before the declaration of amnesty for Niger Delta youths by President Yaradua in 2008, the Niger Delta region had terrorist groups such as Movement for the Survival of Ogoni People (MOSOP), Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND), Niger Delta Peoples’ Volunteer Force, the Egbesu Boys, and Niger Delta Vigilante with a long history dating to the Adaka Boro Movement in the 1960’s. (Ayangese,2010) and through to Ken Saro Wiwa’s struggles. These militant groups launched agitation against environmental degradation, unemployment, poverty, deprivation and marginalization in the Niger Delta areas of Nigeria. In the East, the Bakassi Boys and the Bakassi Movement for the Actualizations of the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB) and presently the agitation group and movement in the South east Nigeria has taken a new dimension with Independent People of Biafra, are also terrorist groups fighting for equal rights and security of N’digbo true federalism, autonomy and political relevance of the Igbo people in Nigeria having been ravaged by the civil war and abandoned thereafter. The Odua People’s congress (OPC) is the militating wing and mouth-piece of the Egbe-Omo-Oduduwa for the Yorubas in the Western Region of Nigeria. It was used by dominant political parties in the West to advance their courses and achieve sanity. The Arewa People’s congress in the Northern Region was also a formidable group. Several pockets of minor militant groups also arose in places like the Jos Plateau area, Igala, Idoma, Zaki, Ihiam and so on. Therefore, the interest was mainly on land acquisition, boundary adjustment and grazing rights. In 2017, the Federal government declared Independent People of Biafra (IPOB) as terrorist organization, after activities of the group in the South east Nigeria was considered as the treat to the continuous existence of the country.
The list of the various attacks by this sect – Boko Haram in 2013 is endless. They have unleashed fear and terror in the minds of the people staying in these parts of the country thereby affecting every aspects of their social and economic life including education sector both tertiary and secondary school education. In April 2014, the activities of the group take a new dimension by adopting 224 students of federal Government Secondary school, Chibok, Borno State by yet to be identified member of the group. Such insecurity has led to massive migration from such troubled areas to other parts of the country which is believed to be less vulnerable to Boko Haram attack. What today can be considered as a security monster could be traced to the teachings of Maitasine, Mohammed Marwa, a Muslim fundamentalist who rejected the influence of the education system imposed by the British when they conquered the Sokoto caliphate in 1903 (Shettu, 2000). Like the members of the Jamaitu Ablis sunnal Lidda wati wal-Jihad, which is the original name of terrorism/ Boko Haram meaning “people committed to the propagation of the prophet’s teachings and Jihad” they strictly believed in the koranic phrase Surah 4;11 “Anyone who is not governed by what Allah has revealed is among the transgressors. Hence members of these sects believed that it is ‘Haram’ or ‘sinful’ to embrace western education as it is not revealed by the prophet.
Statement of the Problem.
Northern Nigeria is an education less developed state compared to Southern Nigeria. During the colonial era, the Southern Nigeria embraced the western education, while the Northern Nigeria embraced the Islamic education. Secondary school is the post primary education in preparation for tertiary education. It attendance by the students is dependent on the readiness of the child, encouragement from parents, provision of school materials, distance to school, facilities that is available, peace and security in the area and above all the security of the child. Terrorist/ Bokoharam has become a threat to most parents and pupils in most Northern States. The activities of terrorism/Boko haram sect have affected the security and peace of the lives and property of people in the North East Nigeria. There are series of cases of bombing and burning of schools and houses in Northern Nigeria. The nefarious activities of the Terrorism/ Boko Haram sect in Nigeria and the destruction of lives and property is a serious issue that could not be dismissed with a wave of hand. The group caught the attention of international community following series of violent attacks in Nigeria since July 2009, specifically with the attack of the United Nations building at Abuja in 2011 and the kidnap of over 234 students of the Federal Government Girls Secondary School in Chibok local government area of Borno State. The sect, having no clear structure or known chain of command was responsible conservatively for the death of over 1200 people (Jimmoh, 2011). A major function of a good government is to guarantee the security of lives and property. This explains why the early philosophers observe that people give up part of their rights to a sovereign leader who is charged with the responsibility of ensuring their security. The demonstrated inability of the Federal Government to curb the insurgence in spite of repeated assurance motivates this study.